Parcellation Guide

 

Functional areas of the Central Executive Network (CEN)

 

Since its initial discovery in the anterior frontal lobe, the CEN has been found to be functionally connected to regions in the anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the middle temporal gyri.

CEN_AXI

ᐅ  Summary

Area 23d (23, part d): part of the posterior cingulate cortex. Highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial and body orientation. Involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 23d (23, part d) is found on the superior half of a section of the posterior cingulate gyrus. It lies just superior to the posterior part of the body of the corpus callosum.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 23d borders area 23c superiorly, and RSC inferiorly. Its anterior border is with area p24prime, and its posterior border is with area d23ab.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 23d demonstrates functional connectivity to a47r, p10p, s6-8, 8AV, and 9p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, 8C 9m, a24, p24, p24prime, p32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area TE1m in the temporal lobe, areas IP1, PGi, PFm, and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas d23ab, POS2, RSC, 7m, 31a, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 23d is structurally connected to the cingulum. The cingulum fibers project anteriorly from 23d with connections to the anterior cingulate cortex and cingulate sulcus, as the fibers curve around the genu of the corpus callosum, these fibers end at a24, p24 and a32pr. The cingulum fibers continue wrapping around the genu with its connections splitting to project anteriorly to 9m, as well as following the rostrum of the corpus callosum to end at 25. Short association bundles primarily project posteriorly to connect to d23ab and v23ab.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 23d is considered a part of the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC), which is highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial and body orientation. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images.

 

23d_a

A: lateral-medial

 

23d_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

23d_c

C: superior-inferior

 

23d_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 31a (31 anterior): part of the subparietal gyrus. Considered a part of the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, which is highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial, and body orientation. Involved in working memory processing of place and body images; focusing on socially interacting objects vs randomly moving geometric shapes; and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 31a (31 anterior) is found on the anterior half of the subparietal gyrus, directly posterior to the marginal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 31a borders areas 31pd and 31pv and PCV posteriorly, and areas d23ab and 23d inferiorly. It has a long anterior and superior border with area 23c

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 31a demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a9- 46v, p10p, 10d, 8AD, 8AV, 8C, s6-8 and i6-8 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, p32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas PreS and TE1p in the temporal lobe, areas PGi, PGs, IP2, and IP1 in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 23d, v23ab, d23ab, POS2, POS1, PCV, RSC, 7pm, 7m, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 31a is structurally connected to the cingulum and local parcellations of the precuneus. There are tracts that connect the contralateral hemisphere through the corpus callosum but this is inconsistent across individuals. The cingulum fibers project anteriorly from 31a with connections to the cingulate sulcus and superior frontal gyrus ending at areas p24, d32 and a24pr. Short association bundles project posterior to connect

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 31a is considered a part of the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC) which is highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial and body orientation. Task fMRIs indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of place and body images; focusing on socially interacting objects versus randomly moving geometric shapes; and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

 

31a_a

A: lateral-medial

 

31a_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

31a_c

C: superior-inferior

 

31a_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 33pr (33 prime): part of anterior cingulate regions. Plays a major role in coordinating autonomic, visceromotor, and endocrine activity that accompany emotion.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 33prime is located in the depths of the anterior callosal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 33prime borders the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) posteriorly and three area 24 subdivisions superiorly, areas a24pr, p24pr, and p24.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 33prime is connected to areas IFSa,, IFJa, and p9-46v in the lateral frontal lobe, areas a24prime and p24prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas TE1p and PHT in the temporal lobe, and areas IP1 and IP2 in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 33 prime is structurally connected to the cingulum. Fibers project anteriorly above the corpus callosum to end at a24, p32 and 10r, anterior fibers also curve around the rostrum of the corpus callosum to end at 25. Posterior cingulum fibers terminate at the precuneus to end at areas 7m and v23ab. Posterior fibers also curve around the splenium of the corpus callosum to end at the RSC.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 33prime is located on the ventral surface of the anterior cingulate cortex and plays a major role in coordinating autonomic, visceromotor, and endocrine activity that accompany emotion.

 

33pr_a

A: lateral-medial

 

33pr_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

33pr_c

C: superior-inferior

 

33pr_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 43: part of anterior apex regions. Has been proposed that area 43 is functionally correlated with area 41, which has been implicated in motor activities related to swallowing.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 43 is found on the anterior portions of the subcentral gyrus (where the precentral and postcentral gyri meet just below the central sulcus). It involves the lateral surface of that operculum as well as the inferior surface which faces the Sylvian Fissure.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 43 borders area 6r anteriorly and OP4 posteriorly. Its superior border includes area 6v, as well as areas 4 and 3a. Its inferior borders include FOP1 and FOP2.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 43 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a, 3b in the sensory strip, area 4 in the motor strip, areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6ma, 6mp, 6r, and 6v in the premotor regions, areas a24prime, p24prime, p32prime, 24dd, 24dv, 5mv, and 23c in the middle cingulate regions, areas 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas IG, OP4, OP2-3, OP1, PFcm, FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas STV, LBelt, PBelt, MBelt, A1, TA2, PI, A4, MI, STV, 52, RI, PoI1 and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PF, and 7AL in the lateral parietal lobe, area DVT in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, V3 and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a, V3b, V6, V6a, and V7 of the dorsal visual stream, areas V8 and FFC of the ventral visual stream, and areas LO3, TPOJ2, MST, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 43 is structurally connected to the superior parietal lobe and local parcellations. Parietal lobe connections project posterior form 43 to end at PFt, PFm and PFcm. Local short association bundles connect with 6v, 6r, OP4, 3a, 4, FOP1, FOP2 and MI

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

It has been proposed that area 43 is functionally correlated with area 41, which has been implicated in motor activities related to swallowing.

 

43_a

A: lateral-medial

 

43_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

43_c

C: superior-inferior

 

43_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 44: part of the inferior frontal gyrus of the lateral frontal lobe. Translates abstract and intentional information in the prefrontal cortex to more detailed representations to help guide the production of verbal and manual actions. In addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of Broca's complex

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 44 is at the posterior most part of the inferior frontal gyrus. It is the anterior bank of pars opercularis of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 44 borders area 45 anteriorly and area 6r posteriorly. Area 8C is its medial border and its inferior border is wedged between then upper borders of Areas 6R and 6V. Its superior edge borders IFSp and IFJa. Its opercular surface is FOP4.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 44 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SFL, IFSp, IFJa, 45, 47s, 47L, 9a, 9m, 8AV, 8BL and 8C in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, area 8BM in the medial frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, areas FOP5, AVI and PSL in the insula- opercular region, areas TGd, STSdp and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, and PGi in the inferior parietal lobe, and no areas in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 44 is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and the FAT. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the Sylvian fissure to the middle temporal gyrus to end at TE1a and TE1m. There are also projections from the arcuate/SLF before it terminates to parcellations A5 and STSdp. The majority of the inferior connections of the frontal aslant tract end at 44, the tract is connected superiorly to superior frontal gyrus parcellations SFL, 6ma and s6-8. Local short association bundles are connected with 45 and 8C. White matter tracts from 44 in the right hemisphere have less consistent connections with the arcuate/SLF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 44 translates abstract and intentional information in the prefrontal cortex to more detailed representations to help guide the production of verbal and manual actions. Area 44, in addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of "Broca's complex", including Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 and the mesial supplementary motor area of 6, which contribute to a frontal-subcortical circuit. The right pars opercularis has also been implicated in cognitive inhibition in the overall context of working memory.

 

44_a

A: lateral-medial

 

44_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

44_c

C: superior-inferior

 

44_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 7Pm (7 posterior-medial): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. In the left hemisphere, this region is involved in vision motion, space, vision shape, attention, and working memory. In the right hemisphere, this region is involved in vision motion, space, vision shape, working memory, motor learning, execution, and attention. Area 7PM also plays a role in episodic memory retrieval and saccade-related activity. Relative to its superolateral neighbor 7PL, area 7PM is deactivated vs activated when viewing body images vs a compilation of tool, face and place images. Area 7PM is also less activated during emotional and social cue tasks compared to 7PL.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 7PM (7 posterior-medial) occupies the posterior superior parietal lobule at the angle where the convexity surface of the SPL turns inferior to form its interhemispheric surface. 7PM occupies portions of both surfaces.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 7PM borders area 7AM anteriorly and area 7PL laterally on its superior surface. On its interhemispheric surface, it borders PCV anteroinferiorly, area 7M inferiorly, and POS2 (parieto-occipital sulcus 2) posteroinferiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 7PM demonstrates functional connectivity to areas i6- 8, s6-8, 8AD, 8BM, 8C, a10p, p10p, 46, 9-46d, a9-46v, p9-46v, a32prime, 23c, and IFJp in the frontal lobe, areas 6a and 6ma in the premotor areas, areas PHA2, PreS, PHT and TE1p in the temporal lobe, areas PGp, PGs, PFm, IP0, IP1, IP2, AIP, MIP, LIPd, and 7PL in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 7AM, PCV, DVT, 31a, POS1, POS2 and RSC in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 7PM is structurally connected to the contralateral side and thalamus. Some individuals have IFOF connections but these are inconsistent. Contralateral connections course through the corpus callosum to end at parcellations 7Pm, POS2 and PCV. Thalamic connections project inferior through the posterolateral thalamus to the brainstem and superior colliculus. Local short association bundles connect with POS2, PCV and 7AM .

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The function of area 7PM in the left and right hemispheres is distinct. In the left hemisphere, this region is involved in vision motion, space, vision shape, attention, and working memory. In the right hemisphere, this region is involved in vision motion, space, vision shape, working memory, motor learning, execution, and attention. Area 7PM also plays a role in episodic memory retrieval and saccade-related activity. Relative to its superolateral neighbor 7PL, area 7PM is deactivated vs activated when viewing body images versus a compilation of tool, face and place images. Area 7PM is also less activated during emotional and social cue tasks compared to 7PL.

 

7PM_a

A: lateral-medial

 

7PM_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

7PM_c

C: superior-inferior

 

7PM_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 8Av (8A ventral): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Within the context of spatial working memory, area 8AV is involved in the interpretation of complex visual information and attention. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are also involved in the maintenance of spatial information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 8AV (8A ventral) is located at the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus. It is an anterior-to-posterior band which is medial to area 8C.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 8AV borders area 46 anteriorly, and area 55b and the FEF (frontal eye field) posteriorly, as well as i6-8. Its medial border is area 8AD. Its lateral border is area 8C. There is a small anterior border with area 46.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 8AV demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9a, 9p, 9m, 8BL, 8AD, and 8C, i6-8 and s6-8 in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, SFL, 10d, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas 44 45, A47r 47l and 47s in the inferior frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor region areas TGd, TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, TE2a, STSva, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, IP1, PGi and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 31pd, 31pv, 31a, 23d, d23ab and v23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 8AV is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and the contralateral hemisphere. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere travel through the body of the corpus callosum to connect to SFL. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the sylvian fissure to the parietal lobule to end at 6a, 7PC, MIP, PFm and 2. Local short association bundles are connected with 8C, 8Ad, i6-8 and 46.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Within the context of spatial working memory, area 8AV is involved in the interpretation of complex visual information and attention. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are also involved in the maintenance of spatial information.

 

8AV_a

A: lateral-medial

 

8AV_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

8AV_c

C: superior-inferior

 

8AV_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 8BM (8B medial): part of medial superior frontal gyrus regions. Involved in maintaining visuospatial information as well as coordinating and coding visuospatial information in terms of oculomotor and other body-centered coordinate systems.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 8BM (8B medial) is located in the posterior medial SFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 8BM borders area 9m anteriorly and SCEF posteriorly. It borders the following area 24 subdivisions superiorly: a24pr, p24pr, and p24. Its inferior border contains areas d32 and a32pr, and its superior boundary includes 8BL and SFL.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 8BM demonstrates functional connectivity to areas i6-8, s6-8, a10p, a9-46v, p9-46v, 8C, 8BL, 8AD, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas SFL, a32prime and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas IFSa, IFSp, IFJp, 44, 45, a47r, and p47r in the inferior frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, area AVI in the insula, areas TE1m, TE1p, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas LIPv, IP1, IP2, PFm, PGi and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7pm, 31a, and d23ab in the medial parietal lobe .

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 8BM is connected to the contralateral hemisphere, frontal aslant tract, inferior front-occipital fasciculus and thalamus. Contralateral connections course through the corpus callosum to end at 8BM and 9m. Frontal aslant tract fibers from 8BM project inferolaterally to end at 44. Thalamic connections run inferior to 8BM and continue in the brainstem. Fibers with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus project inferior and posterior through the extreme/external capsule through the temporal lobe to end at parietal and occipital connections 7PC, V1, V2 and V3. Local short association bundles connect with 9m, d32 and SCEF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 8Bm is involved in maintaining visuospatial information as well as coordinating and coding visuospatial information in terms of oculomotor and other body-centered coordinate systems.

 

8BM_a

A: lateral-medial

 

8BM_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

8BM_c

C: superior-inferior

 

8BM_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 8C: part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Within the context of spatial working memory, area 8C is involved in the interpretation of complex visual information and attention. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are also involved in the maintenance of spatial information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 8C is located at the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus. It is an anterior- to-posterior band which is lateral to area 8AV.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 8C has area 8AV as its main medial border. Its lateral border is with 3 inferior frontal sulcus areas: IFSp, IFJa, and IFJp. Area 55b and PEF (precentral eyefield) are its posterior borders (and discussed in a different section). Area p9-46v and to a lesser extent area 46 are its anterior neighbors.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 8C demonstrates functional connectivity to areas s6-8, i6-8, a9-46v, p9-46v, a10p, 8BL, 8AD, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas IFSp, IFJp, a47r, p47r, and 44 in the inferior frontal lobe, area AVI in the insula, areas TE1m, TE1p, TE2a, STSva, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas IP1, IP2, LIPd, PFm, PGi and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7pm, 31pv, 31a, POS2, 23d, and d23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 8C is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and the contralateral hemisphere. Contralateral connections travel through the corpus callosum to end at 8C. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the sylvian fissure to the posterior temporal lobe to end at PH and PHT.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Within the context of spatial working memory, area 8C is involved in the interpretation of complex visual information and attention. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are also involved in the maintenance of spatial information.

 

8C_a

A: lateral-medial

 

8C_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

8C_c

C: superior-inferior

 

8C_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area a10p (anterior 10 polar): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. involved in episodic and working memory tasks. Brodmann area 10 more generally is activated in relation to increasing complexity of working memory tasks. This area also plays a role in abstract cognitive function.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area a10p (anterior 10 polar) is located at the fusiform junction of the anterior most aspects of the superior and middle frontal gyri.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area a10p borders area 11r on its inferior (orbitofrontal) boundary, and area p10p on its superior boundary. Areas a47r and p47r are its lateral neighbors, and area 10pp is its medial neighbor.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area a10p demonstrates functional connectivity to areas p10p, a9-46v, 8BM and 8C in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, d32 in the anterior cingulate region, area PFm in the lateral parietal lobe, and POS2 and 7pm in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area a10p is structurally connected to the IFOF and contralateral hemisphere. Contralateral connections travel through the genu of the corpus callosum with the forceps minor to end at 9a and p10p. IFOF connections travel from a10p through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2, V3, V6 and V6a. Local short association bundles are connected to 10d, 10pp, p10p, a9-46v and 9-46d.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area a10p is involved in episodic and working memory tasks. Brodmann area 10 more generally is activated in relation to increasing complexity of working memory tasks. This area also plays a role in abstract cognitive function.

 

a10p_a

A: lateral-medial

 

a10p_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

a10p_c

C: superior-inferior

 

a10p_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area a32pr (anterior 32 prime): part of anterior cingulate regions. Research suggests that a32pr helps to guide behavior by evaluating motivation, anticipating outcomes, recognizing reward values, and encoding errors to influence attention allocation and motor preparation.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area a32pr (anterior 32 prime) is located in the posterior inferior portion of the superior frontal gyrus. It wraps into the superior bank of the cingulate sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area a32pr borders area 8BM superiorly, p32pr posteriorly, a24pr and p24 inferiorly, and d32 anteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area a32pr demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 8BM, SCEF, p24, d32, 23c, p24prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas a9-46v, 9- 46d, and 46 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas FOP4, FOP5, AVI and MI in the insula opercular areas, areas 7pm, RSC and POS2 in the medial parietal lobe, area V1 in the medial occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area a32pr is structurally connected to the cingulum and contralateral hemisphere. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to end at a32pr, p32pr, 8BM and 9m. Cingulum fibers project posteriorly from a32pr to end at precuneus areas 7m, 31a, 31pd, 31pv, RSC, Sand v23ab. Local short association fibers connect with p24, 8BM, SCEF and d32.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Research on this particular region suggests that a32pr helps to guide behavior by evaluating motivation, anticipating outcomes, recognizing reward values, and encoding errors to influence attention allocation and motor preparation.

 

a32pr_a

A: lateral-medial

 

a32pr_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

a32pr_c

C: superior-inferior

 

a32pr_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area a47r (anterior 47 rostral): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Previous research has shown that the pars orbitalis is involved in controlled semantic retrieval.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area a47r (anterior 47 rostral) is a j-shaped area located at the anterior inferior portion of the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus. It has a slight superior bend near its anterior extreme which blends into the anterior middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area a47r borders area p47r and area a9-46v; its superior end lies between their anterior surfaces. Its medial neighbor is area a10p. Its posterior edge is with 47l, and it borders 11r on its orbitofrontal side.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area a47r demonstrates functional connectivity to areasp47r, 8C, 8av 8BL, 8BM, i6-8, a9-46v and p9-46v in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas IFSa, IFSp, 47l and 45 in the inferior frontal gyrus regions, areas IP1, IP2, PGi, PGs, and PFm in the inferior parietal lobule, areas TE1m, TE1p, TE2a, and STSv in the lateral temporal lobe, and area d23ab in the posterior cingulate region.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area a47r is structurally connected to the IFOF. IFOF connections travel from a47r through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2, V3, V3a, V6, V6a, 7Am and 7PL. Local short association bundles are connected with 47m and 11l.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Previous research has shown that the pars orbitalis is involved in controlled semantic retrieval.

 

a47r_a

A: lateral-medial

 

a47r_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

a47r_c

C: superior-inferior

 

a47r_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area a9-46v (anterior 9-46 ventral): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Like Area 46, plays a role in goal-directed higher- order cognitive processes. The mid- DLPFC, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area a9-46v (anterior 9-46 ventral) is located at the anterior portior of the middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area a9-46v borders area 46 posteriorly, and area 9-46d medially. Its lateral border is mainly with area p47r and a slight contribution with IFSa. Its anterior limit forms a wedge with areas p10p and a47r.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area a9-46v demonstrates functional connectivity to area 46, 9-46d, p9-46v, a10p, p10p, 6ma, i6-8, a47r, p47r, 8C, and IFSa in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, and a32prime in the medial frontal lobe, area 11L in the orbitofrontal region, area TE1p in the temporal lobe, area AVI in the insula, areas LIPd, PF, IP1, and IP2 in the parietal lobe, and areas 7pm, 31a, and RSC in the medial parietal lobe .

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area a9-46v is structurally connected to local parcellations. White matter tracts from this parcellation are highly variable. Short association bundles connect with 8C, 9-46d, 46, IFSa and p47r.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 9-46d, like Area 46, plays a role in goal-directed higher-order cognitive processes. The mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

 

a9-46v_a

A: lateral-medial

 

a9-46v_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

a9-46v_c

C: superior-inferior

 

a9-46v_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area AAIC (anterior agranular insular cortex): part of anterior apex regions. The anterior insula is suggested to have a role in sensation and control of autonomic nervous system processes as well as playing a role in human awareness, self-recognition, time perception, and perceptual decision making.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area AAIC (anterior agranular insular cortex) is located in the anteroinferior insula near the limen insula and in the transverse insular gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area AAIC is a small triangularly shaped area which borders areas 47s and AVI anteriorly, areas POI2 and Pir posteriorly and area 25 superomedially, and MI superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area AAIC demonstrates functional connectivity to areas AVI, MI, Pir, 47s, and PoI2 in the insula.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area AAIC is structurally connected to local parcellations. Local short association bundles connect with Pir, 47s, AVI, PoI2 and MI.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area AAIC is a newly described area of the brain and was parcellated from the anterior insula. The anterior insula is suggested to have a role in sensation and control of autonomic nervous system processes as well as playing a role in human awareness, self-recognition, time perception, and perceptual decision making. Area AAIC was parcellated from areas MI and AVI in the anterior insula based on functional activity differences between regions related to motor, arithmetic, auditory language, and semantic tasks.

 

AAIC_a

A: lateral-medial

 

AAIC_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

AAIC_c

C: superior-inferior

 

AAIC_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area AVI (anterior ventral insula): part of anterior apex regions. Suggested to have a role in sensation and control of autonomic nervous system processes as well as playing a role in human awareness, self-recognition, time perception, and perceptual decision making.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area AVI (anterior ventral insula) is located in anterior superior apex of the insula.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area AVI borders area 47l anteriorly, areas 47s and AAIC inferiorly, MI posteriorly, and FOP4 and FOP5 superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area AVI demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 6ma and 6r in the premotor regions, areas 44, p47r, 8C, a9-46v, p9-46v and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM d32, and a32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas AAIC and MI in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, areas TE2p, PHA3 and PHT in the temporal lobe, areas LIPd, PF, PFm, and IP2 in the lateral parietal lobe, area V1 in the medial occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area AVI is structurally connected to local parcellations. Local short association bundles connect to insular parcellations 47s, 47l, AAIC, FOP4, FOP5, and MI, and temporal pole parcellations TGd.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area AVI is a newly described area of the brain and was parcellated from the anterior insula. The anterior insula is suggested to have a role in sensation and control of autonomic nervous system processes as well as playing a role in human awareness, self-recognition, time perception, and perceptual decision making. Area AVI was parcellated from areas MI and AAIC in the anterior insula based on functional activity differences between regions related to motor, arithmetic, auditory language, and semantic tasks.

 

AVI_a

A: lateral-medial

 

AVI_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

AVI_c

C: superior-inferior

 

AVI_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area i6-8 (inferior 6-8): part of the lateral frontal lobe. Areas s6-8 and i6-8 represent transitional areas of cortex between Brodmann areas 6 and 8. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are involved in the maintenance of spatial information. Brodmann area 6 has also been subdivided into areas including the premotor and supplementary motor areas that influence motor control. The premotor area, which encompasses the lateral part of area 6, is further divided into ventral and dorsal portions, named PMv and PMd, respectively.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area i6-8 (inferior 6-8) is located at the posterior medial MFG near where the SFS joins with the precentral sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area i6-8 borders area 6a medially, and area 55b and FEF laterally. Area 8AV is its lateral border.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area i6-8 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas s6-8, a9-46v, p9-46v, p10p, 8C, 8AD, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas IFSp, IFJp, a47r, p47r, and 44 in the inferior frontal lobe, area 6a in the premotor region, areas TE1m, TE1p, TE2a, PHA2, and PreS the temporal lobe, areas IP0, IP1, IP2, LIPd, PFm, and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7pm, 7m, 31a, POS2, POS1, and d23ab in the medial parietal lob.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area i6-8 is structurally connected to surrounding parcellations. White matter tracts from this parcellation are variable. Local short association bundles connect with 8Av, 8Ad, 9-46d, 6a and FEF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas s6-8 and i6-8 represent transitional areas of cortex between Brodmann Areas 6 and 8, previously described by Economo and Koskinas. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are involved in the maintenance of spatial information. Brodmann Area 6 has also been subdivided into areas including the premotor and supplementary motor areas that influence motor control. The premotor area, which encompasses the lateral part of area 6, is further divided into ventral and dorsal portions, named PMv and PMd, respectively.

 

i6-8_a

A: lateral-medial

 

i6-8_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

i6-8_c

C: superior-inferior

 

i6-8_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area IFJa (inferior frontal junction, anterior): part of the lateral frontal lobe. Areas in the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The inferior frontal junction, in particular, serves as an important crossroads between bottom-up and top-down processing in the lateral prefrontal cortex.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area IFJA is located in the posterior portion of the inferior frontal sulcus. It comprises part of the inferior bank of the MFG in its upper portions. It is roughly superior to the pars opercularis portion of the inferior frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area IFJa borders area IFSp anteriorly and IFJp posteriorly. Its inferior border is area 44 and its superior border is area 8C.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area IFJa demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 44, IFSa, IFSp, IFJp, and p9-46v in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, area SCEF in the medial frontal lobe, areas FEF, 55b PEF and 6r in the premotor areas, area FOP5 and PSL in the insular opercular regions, areas PH, PHT, and TE2p in the temporal lobe, areas MIP, TPOJ1, and LIPd in the inferior parietal lobe, and no areas in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area IFJa is structurally connected with the arcuate/SLF and surrounding parcellations. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the Sylvian fissure to the middle and inferior temporal gyrus to end at TE1a, TE1m, and TE2a. There are also fibers that project superiorly form IFJa to end at SFL. These fibers are likely portions of the frontal aslant tract which has the majority of its inferior terminations at 44, a neighbor of IFJa. Local short association bundles connect to 8c, IFJa, IFSp, 44 and 8A.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas in the midventrolateral PFC interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The IFJ, in particular, serves as an important crossroads between bottom-up and top-down processing in the lateral prefrontal cortex.

 

IFJa_a

A: lateral-medial

 

IFJa_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

IFJa_c

C: superior-inferior

 

IFJa_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area IFJa (inferior frontal junction, posterior): part of the lateral frontal lobe. Areas in the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The inferior frontal junction, in particular, serves as an important crossroads between bottom-up and top-down processing in the lateral prefrontal cortex.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area IFJp is at the posterior most part of the inferior frontal sulcus. It is roughly superior to pars opercularis of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area IFJp borders IFJa anteriorly and the PEF posteriorly. Area 8C is its medial border and its inferior border is wedged between then upper borders of Areas 6R and 6V.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area IFJp demonstrates functional connectivity to areas p47r, IFSa, IFJa, IFJp, p9-46v, i6-8, and 8C in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM and 33prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 6r, 6a, and PEF in the premotor areas, areas PH, PHT, TE1p, and TE2p the temporal lobe, areas 7PL, PFt, PF, IP0, IP1, IP2, AIP, MIP and LIPd in the inferior parietal lobe, and area 7PM in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area IFJp is structurally connected with the arcuate/SLF and surrounding parcellations. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the Sylvian fissure to the posterior temporal gyrus to end at PHT and FST. There are also connections from the arcuate/SLF to PFm. Local short association bundles connect with 8C, IFJa, IFJp, IFSp, 44, 6r and PEF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas in the midventrolateral PFC interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The IFJ, in particular, serves as an important crossroads between bottom-up and top-down processing in the lateral prefrontal cortex.

 

IFJp_a

A: lateral-medial

 

IFJp_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

IFJp_c

C: superior-inferior

 

IFJp_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area IFSp (inferior frontal sulcus, posterior): part of the lateral frontal lobe. Areas in the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The IFS also plays a specific role in creating procedural representations in working memory from verbal instructions.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area IFSp is located at the anterior portion of the inferior frontal sulcus. It comprises part of the inferior bank of the MFG in its upper portions. It is roughly superior to the pars triangularis portion of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area IFSp borders area IFSa anteriorly and IFJa posteriorly. Its inferior border is a wedge interrupting the upper borders of areas 45 and 44 and its superior border is made up of areas p9-46v and 8C.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area IFSp demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a47r, p47r, IFSa, IFJa, IFJp, p9-46v, 47l, 44, 45, i6-8, and 8C in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, area 8BM in the medial frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, area 47m in the orbitofrontal region, areas PH, TE1p, STSdp, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas IP0, IP1, TPOJ1, and LIPd in the inferior parietal lobe, and no areas in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area IFSp is structurally connected with the arcuate/SLF and surrounding parcellations. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the Sylvian fissure to the middle and inferior temporal gyrus to end at TE1a, TE1m, and TE2a. Local short association bundles connect to 46, IFJa, IFSa, IFSp, TE2a, TE1m, TE1a, 9- 46d, p9-46v, 8C and 8A.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas in the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The IFS also plays a specific role in creating procedural representations in working memory from verbal instructions.

 

IFSp_a

A: lateral-medial

 

IFSp_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

IFSp_c

C: superior-inferior

 

IFSp_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area IP1 (intraparietal 1): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Shows significant activation during mental arithmetic activities. Supports more complex parts of numeric and mathematical information processing. Shows greater activation in primary contrasts, when interpreting motor cues and when hearing a story compared to when hearing arithmetic problems. More active when individuals are processing faces than when processing shapes, and is less deactivated when hearing a story vs unrelated words.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area IP1 (Intraparietal 1) is found on the middle portion of the inferior bank of the intraparietal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area IP1 borders IP2 anteriorly and IP0 posteriorly. Its inferior border is formed by PFm and PGs, and its superior border is MIP and LIPv.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area IP1 demonstrates functional connectivity to area 6a in the premotor regions, areas 33prime and 8BM in the middle cingulate regions, areas IFSa, IFSp, IFJp, a9-46v, p9-46v, 8AV, 8C, i6-8, a47r, and p47r in the lateral frontal lobe, areas TE1m, TE1p, PHT, and PreS in the temporal lobe, areas TE1p and PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, PGs, IP0, IP2, AIP, MIP, and LIPd in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7pm, 31a, d23ab, POS2, and RSC in the medial parietal lobe, and area V1 in the occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area IP1 is structurally connected with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Connections with the SLF project anteriorly to the premotor cortex to end at 55b, FEF and PEF. Local short association fibers connect with PFm, LIPd, IP0, IPS1and PGs. White matter tracts in the right hemisphere have more inferior connections with the inferior frontal gyrus.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area IP1 shows significant activation during mental arithmetic activities, and, as part of the anterior IPS, supports more complex parts of numeric and mathematical information processing. Area IP1 shows greater activation in primary contrasts, when interpreting motor cues and when hearing a story compared to when hearing arithmetic problems. Relative to area IP2, area IP1 is more active when individuals are processing faces than when processing shapes, and is less deactivated when hearing a story versus unrelated words.

 

IP1_a

A: lateral-medial

 

IP1_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

IP1_c

C: superior-inferior

 

IP1_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 1P2 (intraparietal 2): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Shows significant activation during mental arithmetic activities. Appear to support more complex parts of numeric and mathematical information processing. Involved in the modulatory sensorimotor integration processes related to fine finger movements.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area IP2 (Intraparietal 2) is found on the anterior most portion of the inferior bank of the intraparietal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

IP2 borders PF anteriorly, PFm inferiorly, IP1 posteriorly, and areas AIP and LIPv superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area IP2 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 6ma, 6a, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas 33prime and 8BM in the middle cingulate regions, areas IFSa, IFJp, a9-46v, p9-46v, 46, 11L, 8C, i6-8, a47r, and p47r in the lateral frontal lobe, areas AVI in the insula regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas TE1p and PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PFt, PF, PFm, PGp, IP0, IP1, AIP, MIP, LIPd, and 7PL in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7AM, 7pm, 31a, POS2, and RSC in the medial parietal lobe, and area PH in the occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area IP2 is structurally connected with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Connections with the SLF project anteriorly to the premotor cortex to end at 55b and PEF. Local short association fibers connect with PFm, LIPd, AIP and IP1. White matter tracts in the right hemisphere have more inferior connections with the inferior frontal gyrus.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area IP2 shows significant activation during mental arithmeti activities. Anterior IPS areas appear to support more complex parts of numeric and mathematical information processing. The anterolateral bank of the IPS is involved in the modulatory sensorimotor integration processes related to fine finger movements.

 

IP2_a

A: lateral-medial

 

IP2_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

IP2_c

C: superior-inferior

 

IP2_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area p10p (posterior 10 polar): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Involved in episodic and working memory tasks. Brodmann area 10 more generally is activated in relation to increasing complexity of working memory tasks. This area also plays a role in abstract cognitive function.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area p10p (posterior 10 polar) is located on the lateral bank of the anterior aspect of the superior frontal gyrus, just posterior to a10p. It straddles the anterior most point of the superior frontal sulcus which terminates here.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area p10p borders area a10p on its anterior boundary, and area a9-46d and a small part of area 9a on its superior boundary. Area 9-46d is also its lateral neighbor. It is slightly triangular shaped and its superior apex is wedged between area 9a and area 9-46d.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area p10p demonstrates functional connectivity to a10p and a9-46v in the anterior frontal lobe, d32 in the anterior cingulate region, i6-8 in the posterior frontal lobe, areas 31a, 31pv, d23ab, POS2, RSC, and 7pm in the posterior cingulate region, and area PFm in the inferior parietal lobule.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area p10p is structurally connected to the IFOF and contralateral hemisphere. Contralateral connections travel through the genu of the corpus callosum with forceps minor to end at 9m. IFOF connections travel from p10p through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1 and V2. Local short association bundles are connected with 9-46d, 10d, a10p, a9-46v and p9-46v.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area p10p is involved in episodic and working memory tasks. Brodmann area 10 more generally is activated in relation to increasing complexity of working memory tasks. This area also plays a role in abstract cognitive function.

 

p10p_a

A: lateral-medial

 

p10p_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

p10p_c

C: superior-inferior

 

p10p_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area p24 (posterior 24): part of anterior cingulate regions. Functionally distinct from its anterior counterpart in that it plays a more prominent role in selective attention, coordination of conscious eye movements with complicated finger movement sequences, and stimulus/response selection.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area p24 (posterior 24) is located in the anterior cingulate gyrus. It covers the entire gyrus and is just anterosuperior to the genu of the corpus callosum.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area p24 borders areas d32 and a32pr superiorly and area a24 anteroinferiorly. It has a posterior boundary with a24pr and 33pr. Its inferior border is the callosal sulcus.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area p24 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a24, d32, 23c, a24prime, and a32prime in the medial frontal lobe, area 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas RSC and POS2 in the medial parietal lobe, area V1 in the medial occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area p24 is structurally connected to the cingulum. Cingulum fibers project anteriorly to end at frontal lobe parcellations p32 and 10r, anterior fibers also curve around the rostrum of the corpus callosum to end at 25. Posterior cingulum fibers end at the precuneuas, near the splenium of the corpus callosum to areas POS1, v23ab and RSC. Local short association bundles connect with a24, d32 and a32pr.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area p24 is functionally distinct from its anterior counterpart in that it plays a more prominent role in selective attention, coordination of conscious eye movements with complicated finger movement sequences, and stimulus/response selection.

 

p24_a

A: lateral-medial

 

p24_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

p24_c

C: superior-inferior

 

p24_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area p47r (posterior 47 rostral): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Brodmann area 47 is activated during the processing of linguistically complex words. In the recognition of spoken language, Brodmann area 47 increases in activity as the cohort of spoken words increases in size.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area p47r (posterior 47 rostral) is located at the anterior end of the inferior frontal sulcus in the antero-superior most part of the inferior frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area p47r borders area a47r anteriorly and IFSa posteriorly. Its entire medial border is with area a9-46v. It has a small lateral border with area 45

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area p47r demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a47r, a9-46v, p9-46v, 8BM, 8C, and i6-8 in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas IFSa, IFSp, IFJp, and 6r in the inferior frontal lobe, area AVI in in the insula, areas TE1p and PHT in the temporal lobe, area PFm in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas IP2, IP1, and LIPd in the intraparietal a.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area p47r is structurally connected with surrounding parcellations. The white matter tracts from this parcellation are highly inconsistent. Some individuals seem to have connections with the IFOF. Local short association bundles are connected to a47r, p10p, 45, IFSa, s6-8, 9-47d and 9a.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Brodmann Area 47 is activated during the processing of linguistically complex words. In the recognition of spoken language, Brodmann area 47 increases in activity as the cohort of spoken words increases in size.

 

p47r_a

A: lateral-medial

 

p47r_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

p47r_c

C: superior-inferior

 

p47r_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area p9-46v (posterior 9-46 ventral): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Like area 46, plays a role in goal-directed higher- order cognitive processes. The mid-DLPFC, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area p9-46v (posterior 9-46 ventral) is a small triangular shaped region located in the middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area p9-46v borders area 8C posteriorly. Its medial border is area 46. Its lateral border is made of IFSp and IFJa.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area p9-46v demonstrates functional connectivity to area 46, 9-46d, a9-46v a10p, p10p, 6ma, i6-8, a47r, p47r, 8C, IFJp, IFJa, IFSp and IFSa in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, and 33prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 6a and 6r in the premotor area, area 11L in the orbitofrontal region, areas TE1p, TE2p, PH, and PHT in the temporal lobe, area AVI in the insula, areas LIPd, AIP, MIP, PFm, 7PL, IP0, IP1, and IP2 in the parietal lobe, area 7pm in the medial parietal lobe, and area V1 in the occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area p9-46v is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the sylvian fissure to the inferior temporal gyrus to end at TE2a. Local short association bundles connect with 46, a9-46v, IFJa, IFSa, IFSp, 8C and 9-46d.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 9-46d, like Area 46, plays a role in goal-directed higher-order cognitive processes. The mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

 

p9-46v_a

A: lateral-medial

 

p9-46v_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

p9-46v_c

C: superior-inferior

 

p9-46v_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PCV (precuneus visual area): part of the precuneus area. Involved in visual-spatial perception (including spatial reflection, visual motion perception, and spatial conflict resolution), episodic memory retrieval, self-processing, and consciousness. Involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PCV (Precuneus visual area) is found in the anterior precuneus, just posterior to the marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PCV borders areas 5mv, 23c and 31a anteriorly, area 31pd inferiorly, areas 7M and 7pm posteriorly, and area 7am superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PCV demonstrates functional connectivity to 46, 9-46d, 8AD, and in the lateral frontal lobe, areas a24prime, 5mv, 23c, and s32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas FEF, 6ma, and 6a in the premotor region, area STV in the insula opercular regions, areas PHA2, PHA3, and PHT in the temporal lobe, areas 7AL, 7PL, IP0, LIPd, PF, and PGp in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 23d, POS2, POS1, RSC, DVT, 7am, 7pm, 7m, 31a, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, in the medial occipital lobe, area V6 in the dorsal visual stream areas, and areas TPOJ2, TPOJ3 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PCV is structurally connected to local parcellations and the contralateral hemisphere. Connections through the splenium of the corpus callosum terminate at contralateral 5m, 7am, PCV and 7AL. Short association bundles project superiorly to connect to 7am, 7pm and 5m.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PCV is a part of the precuneus, which is involved in visual-spatial perception (including spatial reflection, visual motion perception, and spatial conflict resolution), episodic memory retrieval, self-processing, and consciousness. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

 

PCV_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PCV_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PCV_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PCV_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PFm (parietal area F, part m): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Shows activation in nonspatial attention tasks, decision making when switching choices, rule change during visually guided attention, and reorientation. Also provide syntactical components to language processing, plays a role in attentional processing, and is activated in working memory, motor cue, and risk-related tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PFm (parietal area F, part m) is found on the anterior superior surface of the angular gyrus, and straddles the sulcus to lie on the posterior superior bank of the supramarginal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PFm borders IP2 and IP1 superiorly, PF anteriorly, PSL and STV inferiorly, and PGI and PGS posteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PFm demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 8AV, 8AD, 8BL, 8C, s6-8, i6-8, a47r, p47r, a10p, p10p, 9a, a9-46v, p9-46v, and area 44 in the lateral frontal lobe, area d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area AVI in the insula, areas STSvp, TE1m, TE1p, and TE2a, in the temporal lobe, areas PGs, PGi, IP2, and IP1 in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 7pm, POS2, 31a, 31pv, d23ab, 23d and RSC in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PFm is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF connections course anteriorly from PFm to 8C and 8BM, and inferiorly to middle temporal gyrus parcellations TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, STSva, STSvp and PHT. Local short association bundles connect with AIP, 7PC, IP1, IP2, LIPd, LIPv, PGi, PGs, 2 and 1

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

PFm shows activation in non-spatial attention tasks, decision making when switching choices, rule change during visually-guided attention, and reorientation. Intermediate regions of the inferior parietal lobule also provide syntactical components to language processing. This area also plays a role in attentional processing, and is activated in working memory, motor cue, and risk-related tasks.

 

PFm_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PFm_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PFm_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PFm_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area POS2 (parieto-occipital sulcus 2): Strong, coupled functional correlation with the retrosplenial cortex. Involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images; processing of visual cues instructing movement, and comparing featural dimensions of objects vs matching objects based on verbal classifications.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area POS2 (Parieto-occipital sulcus 2) is found on the anterior bank of the parieto- occipital sulcus, and makes up the superior half of that bank.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area POS2 borders area 7M anteriorly and DVT posteriorly. Its superior border is made of areas 7pm and 7pl and its inferior border is made of POS1.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area POS2 demonstrates functional connectivity to 46, 9- 46d, i6-8, 8C, p10p, and a10p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, 9m, a24, p24, a32prime, p32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas IP1, IP2, PFm, PGp, and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 23d, d23ab, POS1, PCV, RSC, DVT, 7am, 7pm, 7m, 31a, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area POS2 is structurally connected to local parcellations and the contralateral hemisphere. The white matter tracts from this parcellation are highly variable. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere travel with the forceps major fiber bundle to end at V1, though the termination of this tract is inconsistent. Short association bundles are connected to DVT, POS1, V2 and 7pm.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area POS2 has a strong, coupled functional correlation with the retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images; processing of visual cues instructing movement, and comparing featural dimensions of objects versus matching objects based on verbal classifications.

 

POS2_a

A: lateral-medial

 

POS2_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

POS2_c

C: superior-inferior

 

POS2_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area RSC (retrosplenial cortex): part of the posterior cingulate cortex. Primarily responsible for transitioning between allocentric (view-independent) spatial perspectives and egocentric (view-dependent) spatial perspectives. Implicated in spatial navigation, episodic memory, future planning, and imagination. Suspected of being involved in the retrieval of recent autobiographical information from memory.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area RSC (retrosplenial cortex) is a long thin area of posterior cingulate cortex which is immediately adjacent to the callosal sulcus wrapping around the splenium. Its length begins just superior to the midportion of the corpus callosum body, and it follows the cingulate sulcus until the bottom of the isthmus of the cingulum, where the parahippocampal gyrus begins.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area RSC borders the corpus callosum along its entire inferior border. Its anterior border is with area 33prime, and its posteroinferior border is with the presubiculum. Its long superior border includes (from anterior to posterior): area 23d, area d23ab, area v23ab, POS1, and ProS.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area RSC demonstrates functional connectivity to 9-46d, p10p, and 8AD in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, 9m, a24, p24, a32prime, p32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas IP1, IP2, PFm, and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 23d, v23ab, d23ab, POS2, POS1, PCV, DVT, 7pm, 7m, 31a, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area RSC is structurally connected to the cingulum. The cingulum fibers project both anteriorly and posteriorly from RSC, following the full length of the cingulate cortex. Posterior projections continue around the splenium of the corpus callosum ending at the parahippocampal gyrus at area EC. Anterior cingulum projections split near the genu of the corpus callosum to project superiorly to 10d and 9m, and inferiorly to 25. White matter tracts in the right hemisphere have more consistent connections with the precunues when compared to left.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The retrosplenial cortex is primarily responsible for transitioning between allocentric (view-independent) spatial perspectives and egocentric (view-dependent) spatial perspectives. As such, the RSC is implicated in spatial navigation, episodic memory, future planning, and imagination. In addition, the RSC has been suspected of being involved in the retrieval of recent autobiographical information from memory.

 

RSC_a

A: lateral-medial

 

RSC_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

RSC_c

C: superior-inferior

 

RSC_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area s6-8 (superior 6-8): part of lateral temporal lobe. Areas s6-8 and i6-8 represent transitional areas of cortex between Brodmann areas 6 and 8. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are involved in the maintenance of spatial information. Brodmann area 6 has also been subdivided into areas including the premotor and supplementary motor areas that influence motor control. The premotor area, which encompasses the lateral part of area 6, is further divided into ventral and dorsal premotor portions, named PMv and PMd, respectively.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area s6-8 (superior 6-8) is located at the posterior most superior frontal gyrus, on its lateral bank near where the SFS joins with the precentral sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area s6-8 borders areas 8AD and 8BL anteriorly. Its medial border is SFL (discussed in later sections). Its posterior border is made of areas 6ma and 6a.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area s6-8 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas i6-8, 8C 8AD, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas TE1m andTE1p in the temporal lobe, areas PFm and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7pm, 31a, and d23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area s6-8 is structurally connected to the FAT. Connections from the FAT project to the inferior frontal gyrus to terminate at 44, FOP4 and 6r. Local short association bundles connect to 8.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas s6-8 and i6-8 represent transitional areas of cortexbetween Brodmann Areas 6 and 8, previously described by Economo and Koskinas. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are involved in the maintenance of spatial information. Brodmann Area 6 has also been subdivided into areas including the premotor and supplementary motor areas that influence motor control. The premotor area, which encompasses the lateral part of area 6, is further divided into ventral and dorsal premotor portions, named PMv and PMd, respectively. PMv has a significant contribution to the control of object manipulation with the hands, specifically when it comes to the force applied with precision grip. In addition, PMv contains mirror neurons that play a role in understanding actions performed by others. PMd is involved in selecting motor responses based on both arbitrary and spatial cues. For example, the PMd integrates sensory information to guide motor tasks such as reaching for an object. In addition to sensory connections, the PMd also communicates with the prefrontal cortex. Within this subdivision, the caudal portion of the PMd connects to the primary motor area, and the rostral portion analyzes cues to select motor responses.

 

s6-8_a

A: lateral-medial

 

s6-8_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

s6-8_c

C: superior-inferior

 

s6-8_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TE1m (temporal area 1 middle): part of the temporal lobe regions. Appears primarily related to visual pathways. TE1m, like TE1p, shows greater activation in the visual working memory secondary contrast compared to area TE1a. Relative to TE1p, TE1m is less deactivated during language tasks and more deactivated in theory of mind tasks. In fact, TE1m is more deactivated in theory of mind tasks than all of its neighbors.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TE1m (TE1 middle) is found on the lateral surface of the middle portion of the MTG. It spills across the corresponding portion of the inferior temporal sulcus and occupiessome of the superior portion of the corresponding portion of the ITG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TE1m borders TE1a anteriorly and TE1p posteriorly. Its superior border is STSvp and its inferior border is TE2a.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TE1m demonstrates functional connectivity to a47r, 8AV 8BL, 8AD, 8C, 9p, 47L, i6-8 and s6-8 in the frontal lobe, areas STSvp, TE2a, TE1p, and TE1a in the temporal lobe, and areas PGs, PFm, IP1, 7m, d23ab, 31pv, and 31pd in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TE1m is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and "u" fibers of the occipito-temporal system. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe to turn medially and end at 44, 45, IFJa, IFJp and 8C. There are posterior projections from the arcuate/SLF that terminate at the inferior parietal lobule at PGi and PFm. Local short association fibers include "u" fibers of the occipito-temrporal system that connect to TE1p and TE1a.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The function of area TE1m appears primarily related to visual pathways. TE1m, like TE1p, shows greater activation in the visual working memory secondary contrast compared to area TE1a. Relative to TE1p, TE1m is less deactivated during language tasks and more deactivated in theory of mind tasks. In fact, TE1m is more deactivated in theory of mind tasks than all of its neighbors.

 

TE1m_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TE1m_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TE1m_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TE1m_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TE1p (temporal area 1 posterior): part of the temporal lobe regions. Appears primarily related to visual pathways. TE1p, like TE1m, shows greater activation in the visual working memory secondary contrast compared to area TE1a. Relative to TE1m, TE1p is more deactivated during language tasks and more activated during facial recognition tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TE1p (TE 1 posterior) is found on the posterior most portions of the middle an inferior temporal gyri and the intervening inferior temporal sulcus. It spills onto the basal face of the temporal lobe and extends up to the occipitotemporal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TE1p borders TE1m and TE2a anteriorly. Its posterior border is made up of PHT on the lateral surface and PH on the basal surface. TE2p forms its inferobasal edge and STSvp forms its superior edge.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TE1p demonstrates functional connectivity to 33prime, 8AV, 8AD, 8BM, 8C, IFSa, IFSp, IFJp a47r, p47r, 47m, a9-46v, p9-46v, i6-8 and s6-8 in the frontal lobe, areas STSvp, PHT, TE1m, and TE2a in the temporal lobe, and areas PGs, PGi, PFm, IP2, IP1, IP0, 7pm, 7m, d23ab, and 31a in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TE1p is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and "u" fibers of the occipito-temporal system. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe to turn medially and end at 45. There are abundant posterior projections from the arcuate/SLF that terminate at the inferior parietal lobule at STV, PFm, PSL, PGi, TPOJ1, TPOJ2 and STV. Local short association fibers include "u" fibers of the occipito-temrporal system that connect to TE2a and PeEc.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The function of area TE1p appears primarily related to visual pathways. TE1p, like TE1m, shows greater activation in the visual working memory secondary contrast compared to area TE1a. Relative to TE1m, TE1p is more deactivated during language tasks and more activated during facial recognition tasks.

 

TE1p_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TE1p_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TE1p_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TE1p_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TE2a (temporal area 2 anterior): part of the temporal lobe regions. Appears primarily related to visual pathways. TE2a has a similar functional profile to TE1m, which borders the region superiorly, including activation in the visual working memory secondary contrast and deactivation in language tasks. Relative to TE1m, however, TE2a demonstrates less activation in visual working memory tasks and less deactivation during language tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TE2a (TE 2 anterior) is found on the anterior portion of the ITG, the anterior half of the inferior sulcus, and the lateral bank of the occipitotemporal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TE2a borders TF on its basal-medial edge and TE1a and TE1m on its superior surface. It borders TGd and TGv anterior and its posterior end is wedged between TE1p and TE2p

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TE2a demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 8AV, 8BL, 8C, and a47r in the frontal lobe, areas STSvp, TE1m, and TE1p in the temporal lobe, and areas PGs, PGi, and PFm in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TE2a is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and ILF. ILF projections are inconsistent across individuals. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe and turn medially to terminate at 6r, 6v, 8C, p9-46v, IFJa, IFJp and IFSp. There are posterior projections from the arcuate/SLF that terminate at the inferior parietal lobule at PF and PFm. Local short association fibers connect to TE1p and TGd Figure.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The function of area TE2a appears primarily related to visual pathways. TE2a has a similar functional profile to TE1m, which borders the region superiorly, including activation in the visual working memory secondary contrast and deactivation in language tasks. Relative to TE1m, however, TE2a demonstrates less activation in visual working memory tasks and less deactivation during language tasks.

 

TE2a_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TE2a_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TE2a_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TE2a_dti

DTI image

The information provided in this guide has been adapted from 'A Connectomic Atlas of the Human Cerebrum' (Briggs et al, 2018).
 
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