Parcellation Guide

Functional areas of the Default Mode Network (DMN)

 

The default mode network is structurally and functionally connected for internal processes, such as introspective thoughts and imagination.

DMN_COR

ᐅ  Summary

Area 10d (10 dorsal): part of the lateral frontal lobe. Involved in episodic and working memory tasks. Brodmann area 10 more generally is activated in relation to increasing complexity of working memory tasks. This area also plays a role in abstract cognitive function. Demonstrates functional connectivity to areas associated with the default mode network.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 10d (10 dorsal) is located in the anterior superior frontal gyrus. It wraps into the interhemispheric fissure, lying on the medial bank.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 10d borders area 10pp inferiorly, and area 9a posterior on the SFG. It also borders area 10r medially, and areas a10p and p10 laterally.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 10d demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 10r, 10v, 9M, 9P, 8BL, and 8AV in the anterior frontal lobe, areas s32, d32, a24 in the anterior cingulate cortex, areas POS1, 7M, 31a, 31pv, 31pd, and v23ab in the posterior cingulate area, area STSva and TE1a in the middle temporal gyrus region, areas PGs and PGi in the inferior parietal lobule, and the hippocampus. Many of these areas correspond to regions typically associated with the default mode network.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 10d is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere travel thorough the genu of the corpus callosum with the forceps minor to end at 9a and 10d. Local short association bundles are connected with 10pp, a10p, 9a, 10r, 9m and p32.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 10d is involved in episodic and working memory tasks. Brodmann area 10 more generally is activated in relation to increasing complexity of working memory tasks. This area also plays a role in abstract cognitive function.

 

10d_a

A: lateral-medial

 

10d_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

10d_c

C: superior-inferior

 

10d_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 10r (10 rostral): part of medial superior frontal gyrus regions. Research suggests that it plays an important role in stimulus-oriented attention, indicating its importance in concentration and working memory.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 10r (10 rostral) is located in the anterior inferior portion of the medial SFG

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 10r borders area 10d and 10pp anteriorly and inferiorly, respectively. Its superior boundary is area p32 and its posterior boundary is area s32.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 10r demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9p, 10d, and 8AD in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 9m, a24, 10v, s32 and p32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas TGd, TE1a, STSva, PHA1, and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas PGi and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7m, POS1, 31pv, 31pd, v23ab,and d23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 10r is connected to the contralateral hemisphere and cingulum. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere course through the genu of the corpus callosum to end at areas10r and 10v. Cingulum fibers project posteriorly from 10r to precuneus areas v23ab, POS1 and RSC. Local short association bundles connect with p32, 10d and 10v. White matter tracts in the right hemisphere have less consistent connections with the cingulum.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The rostral portion of area 10 (or area 10r) is a newer parcellation of the pre-existing area 10. Research on this particular region suggests that area 10r plays an important role in stimulus-oriented attention, indicating its importance in concentration and working memory.

 

10r_a

A: lateral-medial

 

10r_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

10r_c

C: superior-inferior

 

10r_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 10v: part of medial superior frontal gyrus regions. Often associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and is thought to play a role in behavioral decision making by integrating value appraisals from the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 10v is located in the depths of the inferior anterior most region of medial SFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 10v shares a long inferior border with the OFC. Areas 10pp and 10d form its anteroinferior borders, area 10r is its superior neighbor. It has some border with area s32 superiorly. It terminates in the OFC posteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 10v demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 10d, 47l, and 8BL in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 9m, 10r, and s32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas TGd, TE1a, STSva, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PGi and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7m, POS1, 31pv, 31pd, and v23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 10v is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and the uncinate fasciculus. Connections with the uncinate fasciculus are not consistent across individuals. Contralateral connections course through the genu of the corpus callosum to end at areas 10v and 10d. Uncinate fasciculus fibers project through the limen insulae to temporal pole parcellation TGd.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 10v is a new ventral parcellation of the pre-existing area 10. This region is often associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and is thought to play a role in behavioral decision making by integrating value appraisals from the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

 

10v_a

A: lateral-medial

 

10v_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

10v_c

C: superior-inferior

 

10v_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 31pd (31 posterior dorsal): part of the subparietal gyrus. Considered a part of the ventral posterior cingulate cortex, which is active during self-relevant tasks, including retrieval of semantic and episodic memories. Involved in working memory processing of body and face images; listening to stories vs answering arithmetic questions; and focusing on socially interacting objects vs randomly moving geometric shapes.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 31pd (31 posterior dorsal) is found on the posterior superior portion of the subparietal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 31pd borders area 31pv inferiorly, area 31a anteriorly, PCV superiorly, and area 7M posteriorly

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 31pd demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a9-46v, 45, 47l, 47s, 10d, 8AD, 8AV, 8BL, 9a, and 9p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas SFL, 9m, 10r, 10v, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area TGd, STSva, STSvp, STSda, STSdp, TE1a, and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas PGi, PGs, andIP2 in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 23d, v23ab, d23ab, PCV, POS2, POS1, RSC, 7m, 31pv, and 31a in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 31pd is structurally connected to the cingulum, contralateral hemisphere and local parcellations of the precuneus. The cingulum fibers project anteriorly from 31pd with variable connections along the cingulate sulcus and superior frontal gyrus. Connections project through the body of the corpus callosum to the contralateral precuneus to terminate at 31a, 7m and 31pd. Short association bundles are connected to 7m and PCV .

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 31pd is considered a part of the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC), which is active during self-relevant tasks, including retrieval of semantic and episodic memories. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of body and face images; listening to stories versus answering arithmetic questions; and focusing on socially interacting objects versus randomly moving geometric shapes.

 

31pd_a

A: lateral-medial

 

31pd_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

31pd_c

C: superior-inferior

 

31pd_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 31pv (31 posterior ventral): part of the subparietal gyrus. Considered a part of the ventral posterior cingulate cortex, which is active during self-relevant tasks, including retrieval of semantic and episodic memories. involved in working memory processing of body and face images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 31pv (31 posterior ventral) is found on the posterior inferior subparietal gyrus where it spills across the cingulate sulcus onto the posterior cingulate gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 31pv borders area 31a anteriorly, and area 31pd superiorly. Its posterior border includes area 7m and area v23ab, and its inferior border is d23ab

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 31pv demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 47l, 47s, p10p, 10d, 8AD, 8AV, 8BL, 8C, 9a, and 9p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas SFL, 9m, 10r, 10v, a24, p32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area TGd, STSva, STSvp, TE1a, TE1m, PreS and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas PGi, PGs, and PFm in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 23d v23ab, d23ab, POS2, POS1, RSC, 7m, 31a, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 31pv is structurally connected to the cingulum, contralateral hemisphere and local parcellations of the precuneus. The cingulum fibers project anteriorly from 31pv with variable connections along the cingulate sulcus and superior frontal gyrus. Connections project through the body of the corpus callosum to the contralateral precuneus to terminate at 31pv, 31a and 31pd. Short association bundles are connected to 23c, 23d, 31a, 31pd, 31pv and 7m.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 31pv is considered a part of the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC), which is active during self-relevant tasks, including retrieval of semantic and episodic memories. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of body and face images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

 

31pv_a

A: lateral-medial

 

31pv_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

31pv_c

C: superior-inferior

 

31pv_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 44: part of the inferior frontal gyrus of the lateral frontal lobe. Translates abstract and intentional information in the prefrontal cortex to more detailed representations to help guide the production of verbal and manual actions. In addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of Broca's complex

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 44 is at the posterior most part of the inferior frontal gyrus. It is the anterior bank of pars opercularis of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 44 borders area 45 anteriorly and area 6r posteriorly. Area 8C is its medial border and its inferior border is wedged between then upper borders of Areas 6R and 6V. Its superior edge borders IFSp and IFJa. Its opercular surface is FOP4.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 44 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SFL, IFSp, IFJa, 45, 47s, 47L, 9a, 9m, 8AV, 8BL and 8C in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, area 8BM in the medial frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, areas FOP5, AVI and PSL in the insula- opercular region, areas TGd, STSdp and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, and PGi in the inferior parietal lobe, and no areas in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 44 is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and the FAT. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the Sylvian fissure to the middle temporal gyrus to end at TE1a and TE1m. There are also projections from the arcuate/SLF before it terminates to parcellations A5 and STSdp. The majority of the inferior connections of the frontal aslant tract end at 44, the tract is connected superiorly to superior frontal gyrus parcellations SFL, 6ma and s6-8. Local short association bundles are connected with 45 and 8C. White matter tracts from 44 in the right hemisphere have less consistent connections with the arcuate/SLF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 44 translates abstract and intentional information in the prefrontal cortex to more detailed representations to help guide the production of verbal and manual actions. Area 44, in addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of "Broca's complex", including Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 and the mesial supplementary motor area of 6, which contribute to a frontal-subcortical circuit. The right pars opercularis has also been implicated in cognitive inhibition in the overall context of working memory.

 

44_a

A: lateral-medial

 

44_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

44_c

C: superior-inferior

 

44_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 45: part of the inferior frontal gyrus of the lateral frontal lobe. In addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of Broca's complex

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 45 is the lateral surface of pars triangularis of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 45 borders area 47L anteriorly and area 44 posteriorly. Its superior edge borders area p47r, IFSa, and IFSp. Its opercular surface is conveniently named FOP5

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 45 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SFL, IFSp, 44, a47r, 47s, 47L, 9a, 9p, 9m, 8AV, and 8BL in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, area 8BM in the medial frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, areas FOP5, and PSL in the insula-opercular region, areas TGd, TGv, TE1a, STSva, STSdp and STSvp in the temporal lobe, area PGi in the inferior parietal lobe, and area 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 45 is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and IFOF. However, arcuate/SLF connections are not consistent across individuals. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the Sylvian fissure to the middle temporal gyrus to end at TE1p. There are also projections from the arcuate/SLF before it terminates to parcellations A4 and PBelt. IFOF connections travel from 45 through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly through the temporal lobe to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2, V3 and V4. Local short association bundles connect with 44 and FOP4.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 45, in addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of "Broca's complex", including Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 and the mesial supplementary motor area of 6, which contribute to a frontal-subcortical circuit.

 

45_a

A: lateral-medial

 

45_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

45_c

C: superior-inferior

 

45_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 47l (47 lateral): part of the inferior frontal gyrus of the lateral frontal lobe. Involved in several language processes, including language production and semantic processing. Area 47, in addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of Broca's complex

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 47L is a part of the pars orbitalis of the IFG. It lies on the inferolateral border near the posterior boundary of this region.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 47L is at the inferior termination of area 45, which comprises its superoposterior boundary. It has some boundary with FOP5 on its small posterior opercular surface. Its inferior boundary is with 47s and 47m. Anteriorly, it contacts areas a47r and p47r as they curve superiorly in the polar regions of the IFG.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 47L demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SFL, IFSp, 45, 44, a47r, 47s, 9a, 9p, 9m, 8AV, and 8BL in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM and 10v in the medial frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, areas TGd, TE1a, STSda, STSdp and STSva in the temporal lobe, area PGi in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 31pd and 31pv in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 47L is structurally connected to the IFOF and uncinate fasciculus. IFOF connections travel from 47L through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly through the temporal lobe to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2, V3 and V4. Uncinate fibers course inferiorly through the limen insulae to the termporal pole to end at TGd and STGa. Local short association bundles connect with 45 and FOP5. White matter tracts from 47L in the right hemisphere do not have consistent connections with the uncinate fasciculus.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 47 is involved in several language processes, including language production and semantic processing. Area 47, in addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of "Broca's complex", including Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 and the mesial supplementary motor area of 6, which contribute to a frontal- subcortical circuit.

 

47L_a

A: lateral-medial

 

47L_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

47L_c

C: superior-inferior

 

47L_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 47m (47 medial): part of the the orbitofrontal regions. Integrates emotional information, cognitive appraisals, and physiological internal states to aid in emotional regulation and assist in decision-making processes.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 47m (47 medial) is located in the posterior lateral orbitofrontal cortex

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 47m borders area 11l anteriorly, areas 47l and a47r laterally, area 47s posteriorly, and area 13l medially.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 47m demonstrates functional connectivity to 13L in the orbitofrontal region, 8AD and IFSp in the frontal lobe, TE1p and PHA2 in the temporal lobe and PGs and POS1 in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 47m is structurally connected to local parcellations and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Fibers from the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus project posteriorly through the extreme/external capsule to end at occipital lobe area V1. Local short association bundles connect with 13l, 47l, 47s, AAIC and Pir.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 47m integrates emotional information, cognitive appraisals, and physiological internal states to aid in emotional regulation and assist in decision-making processes.

 

47m_a

A: lateral-medial

 

47m_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

47m_c

C: superior-inferior

 

47m_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 47s: part of the lateral frontal lobe. Involved in several language processes, including language production and semantic processing. Area 47, in addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of Broca's complex

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 47s is located on the posterior bank of the pars orbitalis of the IFG as it folds over onto the orbitofrontal surface.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 47s borders insular regions AVI (Anterior ventral insula) and Pir (piriform cortex) posteriorly. Area 13r is its medial border, and its anterior and lateral borders are with 47L and 47m.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 47s demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SFL, 45, 44, 47L, 9a, 9p, 9m, 8AV, and 8BL in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, area d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area AAIC in the insula, areas TGd, TE1a, STSdp, STSvp and STSva in the temporal lobe, area PGi in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7M, 31pd and 31pv in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 47s is structurally connected to the IFOF and uncinate fasciculus. IFOF connections travel from 47s through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2 and V3. Uncinate fibers course inferiorly through the limen insulae to the termporal pole to end at TGd. There are also anterior uncinate projections that end at frontal polar parcellations 10v and 10pp.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 47 is involved in several language processes, including language production and semantic processing. Area 47, in addition to its known association with Broca's area, is sometimes represented as part of "Broca's complex", including Brodmann Areas 45, 46, 47 and the mesial supplementary motor area of 6, which contribute to a frontal- subcortical circuit.

 

47s_a

A: lateral-medial

 

47s_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

47s_c

C: superior-inferior

 

47s_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 55b: part of the premotor areas. Relatively uncharacterized regions. In 1956, one of the only studies to characterize this regions concluded that the area played a role in language processing.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 55b is located on the anterior half of the precental gyrus, approximately half way down its length along the convexity, just inferior to FEF. It also forms the adjacent floor of the precentral sulci and straddles slightly onto the posterior edge of the middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 55b borders area FEF superiorly and PEF and area 6v inferiorly. Area 4 is its posterior border and areas 8AV and 8C form its anterior border across the precentral sulcus.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 55b demonstrates functional connectivity to area 4 in the motor strip, areas SCEF and SFL in the premotor areas, areas IFSp, IFJa, 8AV, 44, 45, and 47L in the lateral frontal lobe, areas STSda and STSdp in the temporal lobe, areas PSL and STV in the posterior opercular cortices, and area TPOJ1 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 55b is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to 6ma, 6a and 6mp. Connections with the superior longitudinal fasciculus connect 55b to parcellations PHT and PFm, and this tract terminates eventually in the temporal lobe at TGd. Local short association fibers connect with 8Av, 8C, IFJp, 3a, 3b and PEF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 55b is a relatively uncharacterized region. In 1956, one of the only studies to characterize this region concluded that the area played a role in language processing.

 

55b_a

A: lateral-medial

 

55b_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

55b_c

C: superior-inferior

 

55b_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 7m (7 medial): part of the precuneus area. Involved in visual-spatial perception (including spatial reflection, visual motion perception, and spatial conflict resolution), episodic memory retrieval, self-processing, and consciousness. Involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; focusing on socially interacting objects over randomly moving geometric shapes; recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects; and comparing featural dimensions of objects vs matching objects based on verbal classifications.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 7M (7 medial) is found in the posterior precuneus, just anterior to the parieto- occipital sulcus. It does not form the banks of this sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 7M borders POS2 posteriorly, area v23asb and POS1 inferiorly, area 31pd anteriorly, and area 7pm and PCV superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 7M demonstrates functional connectivity to 8AV, 8BL, 8AD, i6-8, 47s, 9a, 9p, 10d, 10v, and 10r in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 9m, a24, d32, and s32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas STSva, STSvp, TGd, TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, PreS, and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, PGi, and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 23d, v23ab, d23ab, POS2, POS1, PCV, RSC, 7pm, 31a, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 7M is structurally connected to the cingulum and contralateral hemisphere. Cingulum fibers project anteriorly from 7m and have connections along the midcingulate and anterior cingulate cortex to d32, a24, p24, a24pr, and p24pr. Connections through the splenium of the corpus callosum terminate at contralateral 7m and PCV. Short association bundles connect to POS1, POS2, 7pm and PCV.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 7m is a part of the precuneus, which is involved in visual-spatial perception (including spatial reflection, visual motion perception, and spatial conflict resolution), episodic memory retrieval, self-processing, and consciousness. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of place, body, tool, and face images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; focusing on socially interacting objects over randomly moving geometric shapes; recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects; and comparing featural dimensions of objects versus matching objects based on verbal classifications.

 

7m_a

A: lateral-medial

 

7m_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

7m_c

C: superior-inferior

 

7m_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 8AD (8A dorsal): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Plays a role in integrating information related to peripheral vision and audition in the context of spatial cognition. The SFS is also involved in the spatial processing of sounds. The posterior part of the SFS anterior to the FEF is specialized for handling spatial working memory.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 8AD (8A dorsal) is located at the posterior lateral part of the SFG on the banks of the superior frontal sulcus. It fills the depths of the posterior SFS and makes up some of the posterior MFG bank of this sulcus. There is a classic right angle between the SFS and precentral sulci which has long been described as a landmark for locating the precentral gyrus. Area 8AD makes up the banks and sulcal depths of the SFS as it is about to join that right angle.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 8AD's anterior border is a wedge which contacts areas 9P, 9-46d, and 46, from medial to lateral. Its medial border is area 8BL. Its lateral border is area 8AV, which it contacts on the medial bank of the middle frontal gyrus. Its posterior boundaries are with areas s6-8, and i-6-8, which form the mouth of the SFS junction with the precentral sulcus.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 8AD demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9p, s6-8, i6-8, 10d, p10p, 8C and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 10r, a24, p32, s32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area 47m in the orbitofrontal region, areas STSva, PHA1, PHA2, PreS, EC, TE1p, TE1m, TE1a, and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, PGi and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 7pm, 31pd, 31pv, 31a, RSC, PCV, 23d, d23ab and v23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 8AD is structurally connected to local parcellations. White matter tracts from this parcellation are highly inconsistent and in some individuals this parcellation connects with the FAT and contralateral hemisphere. Local short association bundles are abundant and connect with 9a, 9p, s6-8, 8Av, 6a and p10p. White matter connections of 8AD in the right hemisphere have more consistent connections with the contralateral hemisphere.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 8AD plays a role in integrating information related to peripheral vision and audition in the context of spatial cognition. The superior frontal sulcus is also involved in the spatial processing of sounds. The posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus anterior to the frontal eye field is specialized for handling spatial working memory.

 

8AD_a

A: lateral-medial

 

8AD_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

8AD_c

C: superior-inferior

 

8AD_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 8Av (8A ventral): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Within the context of spatial working memory, area 8AV is involved in the interpretation of complex visual information and attention. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are also involved in the maintenance of spatial information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 8AV (8A ventral) is located at the posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus. It is an anterior-to-posterior band which is medial to area 8C.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 8AV borders area 46 anteriorly, and area 55b and the FEF (frontal eye field) posteriorly, as well as i6-8. Its medial border is area 8AD. Its lateral border is area 8C. There is a small anterior border with area 46.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 8AV demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9a, 9p, 9m, 8BL, 8AD, and 8C, i6-8 and s6-8 in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, SFL, 10d, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas 44 45, A47r 47l and 47s in the inferior frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor region areas TGd, TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, TE2a, STSva, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, IP1, PGi and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 31pd, 31pv, 31a, 23d, d23ab and v23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 8AV is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and the contralateral hemisphere. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere travel through the body of the corpus callosum to connect to SFL. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the sylvian fissure to the parietal lobule to end at 6a, 7PC, MIP, PFm and 2. Local short association bundles are connected with 8C, 8Ad, i6-8 and 46.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Within the context of spatial working memory, area 8AV is involved in the interpretation of complex visual information and attention. Areas 8 and rostral 6, as part of the posterior dorsolateral frontal areas, are also involved in the maintenance of spatial information.

 

8AV_a

A: lateral-medial

 

8AV_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

8AV_c

C: superior-inferior

 

8AV_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 8BL (8B lateral): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. In macaques represents the premotor eye¨Cear field (PEEF). The PEEF has two divisions¡ªthe core and the belt¡ª that are involved in the coordination of eye and ear movements in relation to space and the topographical representation of that space. Areas 8 and 6 also play a role in the maintenance of spatial information. The posterior part of the SFS anterior to the frontal eye field (FEF) is specialized for handling spatial working memory.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 8BL (8B lateral) is located at the posterior half of the superior surface of the SFG. It is the lateral subdivision of area 8B from a previously described parcellation of area 8 into 8A, 8B, and 8C.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 8BL has a medial border with area 8BM. Its lateral border is area 8ad. It also has an anterior apex which is wedged between the posterior edges of areas 9p and 9m. Its posterior boundary includes area s6-8 and area SFL.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 8BL demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9a, 9m, 8BM, 8C, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas SFL, 10d, 10v, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas a47r, 44, 45, 47l and 47s in the inferior frontal lobe, areas TGd, TE1a, TE1m, TE2a, STSdp STSva, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PGi and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 31pd, 31pv, 23d, d23ab and v23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 8BL is structurally connected to the IFOF, contralateral hemisphere, medial thalamus and frontal aslant tract (FAT). Contralateral connections course through the genu of the corpus callosum with the forceps minor to end at 8BM and 9m. Connections to the medial thalamus travel through the anterior limb of the internal capsule. IFOF connections travel from 8BL pass through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly to end at occipital lobe parcellations V2, V3, 7PL, MIP, V6 and V6A. From 8BL, the FAT projects to the inferior frontal gyrus to terminate at 44. From this tract there are also connections with p9-46v. Local short association bundles connect with SFL, 8BM, 9a and 9p.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 8B in macaques represents the premotor eye-ear field (PEEF). The PEEF has two divisions-the core and the belt-that are involved in the coordination of eye and ear movements in relation to space and the topographical representation of that space. Areas 8 and 6 also play a role in the maintenance of spatial information. The posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus anterior to the frontal eye field is specialized for handling spatial working memory.

 

8BL_a

A: lateral-medial

 

8BL_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

8BL_c

C: superior-inferior

 

8BL_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 9a (9 anterior): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Brodmann area 9 is involved in the maintenance of behaviorally relevant working memory. Area 9 along with Brodmann areas 46 and 8 play a role in reestablishing executive control during automatic behaviors.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 9a (9 anterior) is located at the anterior portion of the superior surface of the superior frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 9a borders area 10d anteriorly and area 9p posteriorly. Area 9m is its medial border. Its lateral border is area 9-46d.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 9a demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9p, 9m, 8BL, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas SFL and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas 44, 45, 47l and 47s in the inferior frontal lobe, areas TGd, TE1a, STSva, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PGi and PFm in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 31pd, 31pv, 23d in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 9a is structurally connected to the IFOF and contralateral hemisphere. Some individuals also have medial thalamic connections but this is inconsistent. Contralateral connections travel through the genu of the corpus callosum with the forceps minor to end at 9a, 9p, p10p, 10d, and 9m. IFOF connections travel from 9a through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly through the temporal lobe to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2 and V3. Local short association bundles connect with 9p.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Brodmann Area 9 is involved in the maintenance of behaviorally relevant working memory. Area 9 along with Brodmann areas 46 and 8 play a role in reestablishing executive control during automatic behaviors.

 

9a_a

A: lateral-medial

 

9a_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

9a_c

C: superior-inferior

 

9a_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 9m (9 medial) part of medial superior frontal gyrus regions. This regions shows increased activity when monitoring multiple pieces of spatial information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 9m (9 medial) is located in the anterior medial SFG

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 9m shares borders with numerous areas. Its posterosuperior border includes areas 8BM and 8BL, its superior border includes areas 9a and area 9p. Its inferior and posterior border forms a wedge which is surrounded by areas p32, a24, p24 and d32 (from anterior to posterosuperior).

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 9m demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9a, 9p, 10d, 8BL, 8AD, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas SFL, a24, 10r, 10v, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas 44, 45, 47s, and 47l in the inferior frontal lobe, area AVI in the insula, areas TGd, TE1a, STSdp, STSva and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PGi and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7m, POS1, 31pv, 31pd, 23d, v23ab,and d23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 9m is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and cingulum. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere course through the corpus callosum to 9m, 8BL and 8BM. Cingulum fibers project posteriorly, above the corpus callosum to end at precuneus areas 31pv, v23ab and POS1. Local short association bundles connect with p32, 10d and a24.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 9m is a newer parcellation of the pre-existing area 9, which is a major constituent of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This region shows increased activity when monitoring multiple pieces of spatial information.

 

9m_a

A: lateral-medial

 

9m_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

9m_c

C: superior-inferior

 

9m_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 9p (9 posterior): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Brodmann area 9 is involved in the maintenance of behaviorally relevant working memory. Area 9 along with Brodmann areas 46 and 8 plays a role in reestablishing executive control during automatic behaviors.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 9p (9 posterior) is located at the anterior portion of the superior surface of the superior frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 9p borders area 9a anteriorly and its superior triangular apex wedges in between areas 8BL and 8AD superiorly. Its medial border is area 9M. Its lateral border is area 9-46d.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 9p demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9a, 9m, 8BL, 8AD, and 8AV in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas SFL, 10r, a24, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas 45, 47l and 47s in the inferior frontal lobe, areas TGd, TE1a, STSva, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PGi and PGs in the inferior parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 31pd, 31pv, 23d, d23ab and v23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 9p is structurally connected to the IFOF, contralateral hemisphere and the medial thalamus. Contralateral connections course through the genu of the corpus callosum with the forceps minor to end at 8BL, 9a, 9p and 9m. Connections with the thalamus travel through the anterior limb of the internal capsule. IFOF connections travel from 9p through the extreme/external capsule and continue posteriorly through temporal lobe to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2, V3, V3A and V6. Local short association bundles are connected with 9a, 8BL and 9-46d.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Brodmann Area 9 is involved in the maintenance of behaviorally relevant working memory. Area 9 along with Brodmann Areas 46 and 8 plays a role in reestablishing executive control during automatic behaviors.

 

9p_a

A: lateral-medial

 

9p_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

9p_c

C: superior-inferior

 

9p_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area a24 (anterior 24): part of anterior cingulate regions. Has been implicated as part of the affect division" of the anterior cingulate cortex

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area a24 (anterior 24) is located in the anterior cingulate gyrus just anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area a24 borders area p24 superiorly and area 25 posteriorly. It abuts the genu of the corpus callosum. Its inferior border is s32 and its anterior border is made up of p32 and 9m.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area a24 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas p24, d32, p32, s32, 10d, 10r, 9p, and 9m in the medial frontal lobe, area 8ad in the lateral frontal lobe, area TE1a in the temporal lobe, area PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas RSC, 31pv, 31pd, 23d, d23ab, v23ab, 7m, and POS1 in the posterior cingulate areas.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area a24 is structurally connected to the cingulum. Cingulum fibers project anteriorly to end near the rostrum of the corpus callosum at 25. Posterior cingulum fibers end at the precuneus, near the splenium of the corpus callosum to area 31pv and 23d. Local short association bundles connect with p32 and 9m.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area a24 has been implicated as part of the "affect division" of the anterior cingulate cortex, and has been linked to analysis of internal and external states to play a role in emotional expression and motivation.

 

a24_a

A: lateral-medial

 

a24_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

a24_c

C: superior-inferior

 

a24_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area A5 (auditory area 5): part of temporal hypotenuse regions. There is evidence that this regions of the brain processes perceptual and conceptual acoustic sounds.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area A5 (Auditory area 5) is a thin anterior-posterior running strip on the superior lateral surface of the posterior portions of the STG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area A5 shares its primary medial border with A4. Its primary posterior border is with TPOJ1. Its lateral borders are with STSdp and STSda (discussed with the temporal lobe section. Its anterior border is with TA2.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area A5 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a and 3b in the sensory strip, area 4 in the motor strip, area OP4 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas STV, RI, STGa, TA2, PBelt, LBelt, A4, and PSL in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, areas STSda, and STSdp in the temporal lobe, area FFC in the ventral visual stream regions, and areas TPOJ1 and MT in the lateral occipital lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area A5 is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and middle longitudinal fasciculus. Arcuate/SLF fibers wrap around the termination of the sylvian fissure from A5 to inferior frontal gyrus parcellation 44. The middle longitudinal fasciculus projects posterior from A5 to run just lateral to the lateral ventricle to end at intraparietal sulcus parcellations V6 and V6A. Local short association bundles connect with A4, STSda and STSdp

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area A5 is a newly described area of the brain parcellated from the auditory association cortex. There is evidence that this region of the brain processes perceptual and conceptual acoustic sounds. Area A5 was differentiated from area TA2 based on differences in fMRI activity during arithmetic, auditory story, and social interaction tasks.

 

A5_a

A: lateral-medial

 

A5_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

A5_c

C: superior-inferior

 

A5_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area d23ab (dorsal 23 section a-b): part of the posterior cingulate cortex. Highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial and body orientation. Involved in working memory processing of body images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area d23ab (dorsal 23 section a-b) is found on the posterior cingulate gyrus, just superior to the splenium of the corpus callosum.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area d23ab borders area 23d anteriorly, and v23ab posteriorly. It has areas 31a, and 31pv as its superior border, and RSC as its inferior border.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area d23ab demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a47r, p10p, i6-8, s6-8, 10d, 8AD, 8AV, 8BL, 8C, and 9p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, 9m, 10r, a24, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area STSva, STSvp, TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, PreS and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas IP1, PGi, PGs, and PFm in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 23d, v23ab, POS2, POS1, RSC, 7m, 31a, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area d23ab is structurally connected to the cingulum. The cingulum fibers project anteriorly from d23ab with connections to the anterior cingulate cortex and cingulate sulcus as it curves around the genu of the corpus callosum to terminate at a32pr and p24. Short association bundles project posterior to v23ab.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area d23ab is considered part of the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC), which is highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial and body orientation. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of body images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; and recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects.

 

d23ab_a

A: lateral-medial

 

d23ab_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

d23ab_c

C: superior-inferior

 

d23ab_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area d32 (dorsal 32): part of anterior cingulate regions. Has been implicated in the evaluation of reinforcement and punishment in assigning value to social information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area d32 (dorsal 32) is a vertically oriented area in the inferior SFG. It is somewhat different in orientation to the other cingulate areas.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area d32 borders area 8BM superiorly, and area 9m anteriorly. Its posterior border is a32pr and its inferior border is p24.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area d32 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas p32, a24, p24, a32prime, p32, 9m, 10d, 8BM, and SFL in the medial frontal lobe, areas 8AV, 8AD, 8BL, 8C, 9a, 9p, a10p, p10p, i6-8, s6-8, and 47s in the lateral frontal lobe, area AVI in the insula, area STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, PGs, and PGi in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas RSC, 31a, 31pv, 31pd, d23ab, 7m, POS2, and POS1 in the posterior cingulate areas.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area d32 is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere, the cingulum and abundant local parcellations. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere course through the corpus callosum to areas d32, 8BM and 9m. Cingulum fibers project posteriorly to precuneus areas 31pv, POS1, v23ab and RSC. Local short association bundles connect with 8BM, 9m a32pr and 10d.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area d32 has been implicated in the evaluation of reinforcement and punishment in assigning value to social information.

 

d32_a

A: lateral-medial

 

d32_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

d32_c

C: superior-inferior

 

d32_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area IFSp (inferior frontal sulcus, posterior): part of the lateral frontal lobe. Areas in the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The IFS also plays a specific role in creating procedural representations in working memory from verbal instructions.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area IFSp is located at the anterior portion of the inferior frontal sulcus. It comprises part of the inferior bank of the MFG in its upper portions. It is roughly superior to the pars triangularis portion of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area IFSp borders area IFSa anteriorly and IFJa posteriorly. Its inferior border is a wedge interrupting the upper borders of areas 45 and 44 and its superior border is made up of areas p9-46v and 8C.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area IFSp demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a47r, p47r, IFSa, IFJa, IFJp, p9-46v, 47l, 44, 45, i6-8, and 8C in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, area 8BM in the medial frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, area 47m in the orbitofrontal region, areas PH, TE1p, STSdp, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas IP0, IP1, TPOJ1, and LIPd in the inferior parietal lobe, and no areas in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area IFSp is structurally connected with the arcuate/SLF and surrounding parcellations. Connections with the arcuate/SLF project posteriorly and wrap around the Sylvian fissure to the middle and inferior temporal gyrus to end at TE1a, TE1m, and TE2a. Local short association bundles connect to 46, IFJa, IFSa, IFSp, TE2a, TE1m, TE1a, 9- 46d, p9-46v, 8C and 8A.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas in the midventrolateral prefrontal cortex interact with posterior areas of the brain to retrieve specific auditory memories. The IFS also plays a specific role in creating procedural representations in working memory from verbal instructions.

 

IFSp_a

A: lateral-medial

 

IFSp_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

IFSp_c

C: superior-inferior

 

IFSp_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area p32 (posterior 32): part of anterior cingulate regions. Has been shown to play a role in the emotional and cognitive integration of information during social interaction tasks, as well as play some role in error monitoring.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area p32 (posterior 32) is the central portion of the medial SFG. It borders the anterior bend of the callosal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area p32 borders area 9m superiorly, and 10d anteriorly. Its inferior borders include areas 10r and s32. Its posterior border includes a24 and a small portion of s32.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area p32 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas d32, a24, p24, a32prime, and 10r in the medial frontal lobe, area 8AD in the lateral frontal lobe, and areas RSC, 31a, 31pv, POS2, and POS1 in the posterior cingulate areas.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area p32 is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and cingulum. Connections to the contralateral hemisphere course through the genu of the corpus callosum to areas p32, 9m, 10d and 10v. Cingulum fibers project posteriorly to precuneus areas POS1, 31pv, RSC and v23ab. Local short association bundles connect with 9m, 10d, 10r and p24.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area p32 has been shown to play a role in the emotional and cognitive integration of information during social interaction tasks, as well as play some role in error monitoring.

 

p32_a

A: lateral-medial

 

p32_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

p32_c

C: superior-inferior

 

p32_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PGi (parietal area G inferior): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Shows activity when individuals change their visuospatial attention from one area to another, and is a major node in the task-negative network, which mostly functions to redirect attention towards relevant stimuli. Relative to PGs, PGi is more active when processing faces compared to a body, is more active when listening to a story compared to unrelated words, and is more active when listening to a story vs answering arithmetic problems.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PGi (parietal area G inferior) is found on the inferior surface of the angular gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PGi borders PGs superiorly, and PFm and STV anteriorly. Its inferior and its short posterior border is made up of TPOJ1, TPOJ2 and TPOJ3.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PGi demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 8AD, 8AV, 8BL, 8C, 47s, 47l, a47r, 44, 45, 10d, 9a, and 9p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas SFL, 9m, 10v, 10r, 8BM, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas STSda, STSdp, STSva, STSvp, the hippocampus, TGd, TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, and TE2a, in the temporal lobe, areas PFm and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7m, POS1, 31a, 31pd, 31pv, d23ab, and v23ab in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PGi is structurally connected to inferior parcellations of the occipitotemporal junction. Some individuals have connections to the arcuate/SLF with anterior projections to the premotor areas but this is inconsistent. Local short association bundles connect to the occipitotemporal junction at parcellations PHT, TE1p, STSvp, STSdp, TPOJ1 and TE1m.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PGi is involved in many of the same functions as area PGs. This region shows activity when individuals change their visuospatial attention from one area to another, and is a major node in the task-negative network, which mostly functions to re-direct attention towards relevant stimuli. Relative to PGs, PGi is more active when processing faces compared to a body, is more active when listening to a story compared to un-related words, and is more active when listening to a story versus answering arithmetic problems.

 

PGi_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PGi_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PGi_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PGi_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PGs (parietal area G superior): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Shows activity when individuals change their visuospatial attention from one area to another. Specifically, it is involved in the response to biological motion. It is a major node in the task-negative network, which mostly functions to redirect attention towards relevant stimuli. Also relevant in number processing.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PGs (parietal area G superior) is found on the superior surface of the angular gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PGs borders PFm anteriorly, PGi inferiorly, PGp posteriorly and IP1 and IP0 superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PGs demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 8AD, 8AV, 8BL, 8C, s6-8, i6-8, a47r, 47m, 10d, and 9p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 9m, 10v, 10r, 8BM, a24, d32, and s32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas PHA1, PHA2, PreS, EC, the hippocampus, STSva, STSvp, TGd, TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, and TE2a, in the temporal lobe, areas PFm, PGi, and IP1 in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7m, 7pm, POS1, POS2, 31a, 31pd, 31pv, d23ab, v23ab, 23d and RSC in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PGs is structurally connected to the arucate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF connections course anteriorly from PGs to inferior frontal sulcus parcellations IFJa, IFJp and IFSp, and inferiorly to occipitotemporal junction areas PHT, FST and TPOJ2. Local short association bundles connect with PFm, PGi, PGp, IP0, IP1, IP2 and MIP.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PGs shows activity when individuals change their visuospatial attention from one area to another. Specifically, PGs is involved in the response to biological motion. It is a major node in the task-negative network, which mostly functions to re-direct attention toward relevant stimuli. This region is also relevant in number processing. Area PGs is superior to area PGi, but these regions are not differentiated well within the literature.

 

PGs_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PGs_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PGs_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PGs_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PHA1 (parahippocampal area 1): part of the temporal lobe regons. Involved in visuospatial processing and episodic memory by processing contextual information. The anterior parahippocampal cortex is involved in encoding information without regard for stimulus category (scenes vs objects) or modality (word vs picture) and interfaces with the hippocampus, retrosplenial, and perirhinal memory systems, while the posterior parahippocampal cortex is involved with pictorial scene analysis, namely processing spatial features of visual scenes.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PHA1 (parahippocampal area 1) is a long thin area on the medial portion of the parahippocampal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PHA1 borders area PreS superiorly and PHA2 inferiorly. Its posterior border is VMV1 and its anterior border is EC.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PHA1 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 10r and 8ad in the frontal lobe, areas PHA2, PHA3, VMV1 PreS, the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, and areas ProS, POS1, PGp, and PGs in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PHA1 is connected to local parcellations. Local anterior fibers connect to PeEc. Local posterior fibers connect to PH. The exact terminations of the local connections are inconsistent across individuals.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The parahippocampal cortex is involved in visuospatial processing and episodic memory by processing contextual information. The anterior parahippocampal cortex is involved in encoding information without regard for stimulus category (scenes vs objects) or modality (word vs picture) and interfaces with the hippocampus,retrosplenial, and perirhinal memory systems while the posterior parahippocampal cortex is involved with pictorial scene analysis, namely processing spatial features of visual scenes. Like both PHA2 and PHA3, PHA1 is activated in the PLACE-AVG contrast and deactivated in the FACE-AVG contrast, suggesting a role in place/scene recognition rather than face recognition. However, PHA1 is less deactivated in face recognition than PHA2 and PHA3 inferiorly.

 

PHA1_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PHA1_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PHA1_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PHA1_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PHA2 (parahippocampal area 2): part of the temporal lobe regions. Involved in visuospatial processing and episodic memory by processing contextual information. The anterior parahip- pocampal cortex is involved in encoding information without regard for stimulus category (scenes vs objects) or modality (word vs picture) and interfaces with the hippocampus, retrosplenial, and perirhinal memory systems, while the posterior parahippocampal cortex is involved with pictorial scene analysis, namely processing spatial features of visual scenes.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PHA2 (parahippocampal area 2) is found on parahippocampal gyrus, primarily on its inferior surface, just adjacent to the collateral sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PHA2 is a long thin anterior posterior area between PHA1 superiorly and PHA3 inferiorly. It has a small porterior border with VMV2.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PHA2 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 8AD, 47m, and i6-8 in the frontal lobe, areas PHA1, PHA3, PreS, and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas ProS, 7pm, PCV, DVT, POS1, IP0, PGp, and PGs in the parietal lobe, and area TPOJ3 in the occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PHA2 is structurally connected to the ILF. There are anterior projections from the ILF that terminate at PeEc. The posterior terminations of the ILF terminate at V1, V2 and V3. The exact terminations of the local connections are inconsistent across individuals.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The parahippocampal cortex is involved in visuospatial processing and episodic memory by processing contextual information. The anterior parahippocampal cortex is involved in encoding information without regard for stimulus category (scenes vs objects) or modality (word vs picture) and interfaces with the hippocampus, retrosplenial, and perirhinal memory systems while the posterior parahippocampal cortex is involved with pictorial scene analysis, namely processing spatial features of visual scenes. Like both PHA1 and PHA3, PHA2 is activated in the PLACE-AVG contrast and deactivated in the FACE-AVG contrast, suggesting a role in place/scene recognition rather than face recognition. Area PHA2 is more deactivated than PHA1 in facial recognition tasks.

 

PHA2_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PHA2_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PHA2_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PHA2_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PHA3 (parahippocampal area 3): part of the temporal lobe regions. Involved in visuospatial processing and episodic memory by processing contextual information. The anterior parahippocampal cortex is involved in encoding information without regard for stimulus category (scenes vs objects) or modality (word vs picture) and interfaces with the hippocampus, retrosplenial, and perirhinal memory systems, while the posterior parahippocampal cortex is involved with pictorial scene analysis, namely processing spatial features of visual scenes.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PHA3 (parahippocampal area 3) is located in the parahippocampal gyrus, primarily inside the collateral sulcus

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PHA3 borders PHA2 superiorly, and VVC (ventral visual complex) and TF inferiorly. Its posterior border is with VMV2 and VMV3, and its anterior border is PeEC.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PHA3 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 6a and IFSa in the frontal lobe, areas PHT, PHA1, PHA2, VMV2 and PeEc in the temporal lobe, areas 23c, 7pl, 7am, 7pm, PCV, DVT POS1, MIP, LIPd, AIP, PGp, and PFt in the parietal lobe, and areas TPOJ3 and VVC in the occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PHA3 is structurally connected to the ILF. There are anterior projections from the ILF that terminate at TGd. The posterior terminations of the ILF terminate at VVC and FFC. There are fibers that run parallel to the ILF and terminate at the occipital lobe at V1, V2 and V6. The exact terminations of the local connections are inconsistent across individuals.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The parahippocampal cortex is involved in visuospatial processing and episodic memory by processing contextual information. The anterior parahippocampal cortex is involved in encoding information without regard for stimulus category (scenes vs objects) or modality (word vs picture) and interfaces with the hippocampus, retrosplenial, and perirhinal memory systems while the posterior parahippocampal cortex is involved with pictorial scene analysis, namely processing spatial features of visual scenes. Relative to PHA2, area PHA3 demonstrates greater activity in tool-related recognition tasks.

 

PHA3_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PHA3_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PHA3_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PHA3_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area POS1 (parieto-occipital sulcus 1): Activated during working memory processing of place images. This area also shows greater functional activity related to socially interacting objects vs randomly moving geometric shapes. It is suggested that this region is involved in scene-comprehension with the retrosplenial cortex.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area POS1 (Parieto-occipital sulcus 1) found on the anterior bank of the parieto- occipital sulcus, and makes up the inferior half of that bank.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area POS1 borders area 7M, area d23ab, and RSC anteriorly, and DVT posteriorly. Its superior border is made of POS2, and its inferior border is made of ProS and RSC.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area POS1 demonstrates functional connectivity to 8AD, i6- 8, 47m, 10d, 10v, and 10r in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 9m, a24, s32, p32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, areas STSva, TE1a, PHA1, PHA2, PHA3, PreS, and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas PGi, PGp, and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas ProS, v23ab, d23ab, POS2, PCV, RSC, DVT, 7pm, 7m, 31a, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area POS1 is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and to anterior and parahippocampal cingulum projections. Anterior cingulum fibers have connections to the anterior cingulate cortex at a24, a24pr and p24. Posterior cingulum fibers curve around the splenium of the corpus callosum to end at the parahippocampal gyrus at area EC.Connections to contralateral V1 connect with FM. Short association bundles are connected to V1, V2, POS2 and V6.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Task fMRI studies demonstrate that area POS1 is activated during working memory processing of place images. This area also shows greater functional activity related to socially interacting objects versus randomly moving geometric shapes. It is suggested that this region is involved in scene-comprehension with the RSC.

 

POS1_a

A: lateral-medial

 

POS1_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

POS1_c

C: superior-inferior

 

POS1_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PreS: (presubiculum) part of the medial temporal areas. Region of the hippocampus that primate studies suggest is involved in the processing of spatial information. Demonstrates less activity during tasks related to working memory, language processing, and theory of mind. Relative to PHA1, PreS shows greater activity during motor tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PreS is found on the posterior superior surface of the parahippocampal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PreS borders the hippocampus medially, and the entrorhinal cortex anteriorly. Its posterior border is made up of RSC (retrosplenial cortex) and the ProS (prostriate region) (which are discussed in other sections. PHA1 is its inferior border

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PreS demonstrates functional connectivity areas 8AD and i6-8 in the frontal lobe, areas PHA1, PHA2, and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas RSC, Pros, d23ab, v23ab, 31a, 31pv, 7m, 7pm, POS1, POS2, IP1, and PGs in the parietal lobe, and area V1 in the occipital lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PreS is structurally connected to the cingulum, precuneus and occipital lobe. Cingulum projections run superior to the corpus callosum to end at anterior cingulate cortex and frontal lobe parcellations a24, 9m, 10d and p32. There arePreS fibers that project posteriorly to end at occipital and precuneus areas V1, V2, V6, POS1, POS2 and 7m. Local short association fibers are connected to EC and PeEc.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The presubiculum lies medial to the subiculum - a region of the hippocampus which primate studies suggest is involved in the processing of spatial information. Area PreS contains more myelin than the hippocampal cortex, and relative to PHA1 inferiorly, contains more myelin, is thinner, and demonstrates less activity during tasks related to working memory, language processing, and theory of mind. Relative to PHA1, PreS shows greater activity during motor tasks.

 

PreS_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PreS_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PreS_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PreS_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PSL (perisylvian language area): part of parietal apex regions. Thought to play a role in higher cognitive functions such as essential information processing, motional control, and control of cognitive functions. Also believed to be associated with special human cognitive functions such as generation of language, visuospatial attention, and assimilation of audiovisual information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PSL (periSylvian Language area) is located in the supramarginal gyrus. It is located at the apex of the posterior Sylvian Fissure, in the lower portion of this posterior part of the SMG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PSL borders STV inferiorly, PFm posteriorly, PF superiorly, and PFcm anteriorly. It borders RI on its internal surface.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PSL demonstrates functional connectivity to area SCEF in the paracingulate areas, area 55b in the premotor areas, areas IFJa, 9-46d, 44 and 45 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas STV and A5 in the inferior insula opercular region, areas STSda, STSdp, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V6, V67a, V7, V3a, and V3b in the dorsal visual stream, areas V8, FFC, Pit and VVC in the ventral visual stream, and area TPOJ1 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PSL is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF fibers project anteriorly from PSL above the insula to end at 6r, and inferiorly from PSL through the temporal lobe to end at TE1a, STSdp, STSva and STSvp. Local short association bundles connect with PBelt, STV, RI, A5 and PF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PSL is a newly described area of the brain parcellated from the temporo-parieto-occipital junction (TPOJ). This area of the brain is thought to play a role in higher cognitive functions such as essential information processing, motional control, and control of cognitive functions. The TPOJ is also believed to be associated with special human cognitive functions such as generation of language, visuospatial attention and assimilation of audiovisual information. Area PSL was differentiated from areas PFcm and RI based on differences in fMRI activity during arithmetic and auditory story tasks.

 

PSL_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PSL_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PSL_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PSL_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area s32 (subcallosal 32): part of anterior cingulate regions. Heavily interconnected to other areas of the limbic system and thus plays a higher order role in emotional affect as well as reward expectation.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area s32 (subcallosal 32) lies in the subcallosal gyri.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area s32 has a24, p32, and 10r as its anterior and superior borders. Area 10v and the OFC region are its inferior boundaries. Its posterior boundary is area 25.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area s32 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a24, 25, 10d, and 10r in the medial frontal lobe, area 8AD in the lateral frontal lobe, area PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas v23ab and POS1 in the posterior cingulate areas.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area s32 is structurally connected to local parcellations. S32 has posterior connections to 25 and anterior connections to p32.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area s32 is heavily interconnected to other areas of the limbic system and thus plays a higher order role in emotional affect as well as reward expectation.

 

s32_a

A: lateral-medial

 

s32_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

s32_c

C: superior-inferior

 

s32_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area SFL: part of the supplementary motor regions. Known to be hemispherically asymmetric. Specifically, the left hemisphere shows more activity when listening to stories and when a participant is matching objects based on a verbal cue. Compared to area 8BL, area SFL shows more activation when listening to a story, matching objects based on verbal cues and in social interaction settings. Compared to area s6-8, area SFL shows more activation in the left hemisphere when individuals listen to a story. In the right hemisphere, area SFL is activated insocial interaction settings and is deactivated during object feature comparison tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area SFL (superior frontal language area) is located on the posterior medial SFG straddling over the interhemispheric cleft.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area SFL borders SCEF inferiorly. Its anterior inferior neighbor is area 8BM and its anterior superior neighbor is area 8BL. Areas 6ma and s6-8 are its lateral neighbors.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area SFL demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 8BL, 8AV, 9a, 9p, and 9m in dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, d32, areas 44, 45, 47L, and 47s in the inferior frontal lobe, area 55b in the premotor areas, areas STSda, STSdp, STSva, STSvp, TE1a, and TGd in the temporal lobe, area PGi in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 31pv, and 31pv in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area SFL is structurally connected to pyramidal tracts, the frontal aslant tract and contralateral hemisphere. Connections to pyramidal tracts descend through the posterior limb of the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle to the brainstem. The FAT connects SFL with the inferior frontal gyrus, terminating at parcellations 44, IFSp and MI. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to SCEF and 8BL. Local short association fibers connect with SCEF, 8BL, SFL and 6ma.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area SFL was subdivided from adjacent parcellations due to differences in myelin thickness and functional activity. Area SFL is known to be hemispherically asymmetric. Specifically, the left hemisphere shows more activity when listening to stories and when a participant is matching objects based on a verbal cue. Compared to area 8BL, area SFL shows more activation when listening to a story, matching objects based on verbal cues and in social interaction settings. Compared to area s6-8, area SFL shows more activation in the left hemisphere when individuals listen to a story. In the right hemisphere, area SFL is activated in social interaction settings and is deactivated during object feature comparison tasks.

 

SFL_a

A: lateral-medial

 

SFL_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

SFL_c

C: superior-inferior

 

SFL_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area STGa (superior temporal gyrus regions a): part of temporal hypotenuse regions. Parcellated from the auditory association cortex. There is evidence that this regions of the brain processes perceptual and conceptual acoustic sounds.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area STGa (superior temporal gyrus region a) is located on the anterior superior surface of the superior temporal gyrus with no extension onto the lateral surface.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area STGa borders PI medially, TA2 anterormedially, STSda posterolaterally, and TGd anteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area STGa demonstrates functional connectivity to A5 and Pi in the insula opercular region, and areas TGd, STSda, and STSdp in the temporal lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area STGa is structurally connected to the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and local parcellations. Inferior longitudinal fasciculus fibers project posterior from STGa coursing through the temporal lobe to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2, V3, V3A and V3CD. Local short association bundles connect with TA2 and STSda

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area STGa is a newly described area of the brain parcellated from the auditory association cortex. There is evidence that this region of the brain processes perceptual and conceptual acoustic sounds. Area STGa was differentiated from areas TGd and PI based on differences in fMRI activity during arithmetic, auditory story, and social interaction tasks.

 

STGa_a

A: lateral-medial

 

STGa_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

STGa_c

C: superior-inferior

 

STGa_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area STSda (superior temporal sulcus dorsal anterior): part of the temporal lobe regions. Primarily implicated in speech processing. STSda is also activated in language-related task contrasts. Relative to STSva inferiorly, STSda shows greater activation in motor tasks and less deacti- vation in tasks involving reward processing and decision making.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area STSda (superior temporal sulcus dorsal anterior) is found on the anterior half of the lateral face of the STG and the anterior half of the superior bank of the superior temporal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area STSda borders area STSdp posteriorly, STSva and TGd inferiorly and anteroinferiorly, STGa anteriorly, and TA2 and A5 superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area STSda demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9m, 45, 47L, SFL and 55b in the frontal lobe, areas STV, PSL, A5, and STGa in the insula opercular area, areas STSva, STSvp, STSdp, TGd, and TE1a in the temporal lobe, and areas PGi and 31pd in the parietal lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area STSda is structurally connected to the arcuate/superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) and the "u" fibers of the occipito-temporal system. In some individuals, the STSda may also connect to the superior temporal terminations of inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), though this is inconsistent across individuals and difficult to distinguish from the superior tracts of the MdLF. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe and turn medially to terminate at FOP1, FOP3 and FOP4. MdLF tracts project through the temporal lobe to end at V1, V2, V3 and V4. Local short association fibers include "u" fibers of the occipito-temrporal system that connect to TGd, STSva and A5

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The STS in general has been implicated in theory of mind along with the inferior temporal sulcus, medial prefrontal cortex, and temporal parietal junction. The STS is also involved in motion processing, speech processing, and facial processing. In addition to activating with unimodal visual and auditory inputs, the STS exhibits even stronger activation with combined audio and visual stimuli indicating a role in audiovisual integration. Based on activations during tasks involved with semantic processing of auditory inputs, STSda, STSva, STSdp, and STSvp may be categorized as belonging to an auditory association cortex with areas A4, A5, STGa, and TA2. STSda, as part of the anterior portion of the STS, is primarily implicated in speech processing. STSda is also activated in language-related task contrasts. Relative to STSva inferiorly, STSda shows greater activation in motor tasks and less deactivation in tasks involving reward processing and decision making.

 

STSda_a

A: lateral-medial

 

STSda_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

STSda_c

C: superior-inferior

 

STSda_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area STSdp (superior temporal sulcus dorsal posterior): part of the temporal lobe regions. Involved in motion processing, audiovisual integration, and facial processing. The posterior half of STSdp (as with STSvp) is strongly activated in the story-math secondary contrast, indicating a role in language comprehension. STSdp responds more strongly than STSvp to primary language tasks and to social cognition and motor tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area STSdp (superior temporal sulcus dorsal posterior) is found on the posterior half of the lateral face of the STG and the posterior half of the superior bank of the superior temporal sulcus

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area STSdp borders area STSda anteriorly, STSvp inferiorly, TPOJ1 posteriorly, and A5 superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area STSdp demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 9m, 8BL, 44 45, 47L, 47s, IFSp, SFL and 55b in the frontal lobe, areas STV, PSL, A5, and STGa in the insula opercular area, areas STSva, STSvp, STSda, and TGd, in the temporal lobe, TPOJ1 in the lateral occipital lobe, and PGi and 31pd in the parietal lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area STSdp is structurally connected to the "u" fibers of the occipito-temporal system and the arcuate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe and turn medially to terminate at 44, FOP4, IFJa, IFJp and IFSp. Local short association fibers include "u" fibers of the occipito-temrporal system that connect to STSda, STSva, STSvp, PSL and P

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The posterior portion of the STS is primarily involved in motion processing, audiovisual integration, and facial processing. The posterior half of STSdp (like the posterior half of STSvp) is strongly activated in the story-math secondary contrast, indicating a role in language comprehension. STSdp responds more strongly than STSvp to primary language tasks and to social cognition and motor tasks.

 

STSdp_a

A: lateral-medial

 

STSdp_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

STSdp_c

C: superior-inferior

 

STSdp_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area STSva (superior temporal sulcus ventral anterior): part of the temporal lobe regions. Primarily implicated in speech processing. Activated in the story-math contrast as well as in primary language tasks. Relative to STSda inferiorly, STSva is less activated in motor tasks and more deactivated in tasks involved with reward processing and decision making.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area STSva (superior temporal sulcus ventral anterior) is found on the anterior half of the inferior bank of the superior temporal sulcus

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area STSva borders area STSvp posteriorly, TGd anteriorly, TE1a inferiorly, and STSda superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area STSva is connected to 8AV, 8BL, 8AD, 9a, 9p, 9m, 45, 47s, 47L, 10d, 10r, 10v, and SFL in the frontal lobe, areas STSda, STSvp, STSdp, TGd, the hippocampus, and TE1a in the temporal lobe, and areas PGi, 7m, d23ab, 23d, 31pv, and 31pd in the parietal lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area STSva is structurally connected to the MdLF, "u" fibers of the occipito-temporal system and the arcuate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe and turn medially to terminate at 44, IFJa, 6r and 43. MdLF fibers course through the temporal lobe to end at V1, V2, V3, V4 and V3a. This tract may involve superior portions of the ILF. Local short association fibers include "u" fibers of the occipito-temrporal system that connect to STSda, STSdp, STSvp, PSL, PFm and PF

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

As part of the anterior portion of the STS, STSva is primarily implicated in speech processing. STSda is activated in the story-math contrast as well as in primary language tasks. Relative to STSda inferiorly, STSva is less activated in motor tasks and more deactivated in tasks involved with reward processing and decision making.

 

STSva_a

A: lateral-medial

 

STSva_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

STSva_c

C: superior-inferior

 

STSva_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area STSvp (superior temporal sulcus ventral posterior): part of the temporal lobe regions. Strongly activated by the story-math secondary contrast, indicating a role in language comprehension. STSvp does not respond as strongly as STSva to primary language tasks, and is less active in social cognition and motor tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area STSvp (superior temporal sulcus ventral posterior) is found on the posterior half of the inferior bank of the superior temporal sulcus

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area STSvp borders area STSva anteriorly, TE1m and TE1p inferiorly, TPOJ1 and PHT posteriorly, and STSdp superiorly

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area STSvp demonstrates functional connectivity to 8AV, 8BL, 8BM, 8C, 9a, 9p, 9m, 44, 45, 47s, 47L a47r, IFSp, d32, 10v, SFL and 55b in the frontal lobe, area PSL in the insula opercular area, areas STSva, STSda, STSdp, TGd, TE1a, TE1m, TE1p, and TE2a in the temporal lobe, and areas PGs, PGi, 7m, POS1, d23ab, 31pv, and 31pd in the parietal lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area STSvp is structurally connected to “u” fibers of the occipito-temporal system and the arcuate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe to turn medially and terminate at 6r, IFJp, IFJa, FOP2, FOP3, FOP4 and 44. There are posterior projections from the arcuate/SLF as it wraps around the Sylvian fissure to terminate at the inferior parietal lobule at PF, PFm, PSL, PGi and STV. Local short association fibers include “u” fibers of the occipito-temrporal system that connect to STSdp, STSva, TE1p, TE1m, PF, PFm, PSL, PGi and STV

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The posterior half of STSvp (like the posterior half of STSdp) is strongly activated by the story-math secondary contrast, indicating a role in language comprehension. STSvp does not respond as strongly as STSva to primary language tasks, and is less active in social cognition and motor tasks

 

STSvp_a

A: lateral-medial

 

STSvp_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

STSvp_c

C: superior-inferior

 

STSvp_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area STV (superior temporal visual area): part of parietal apex regions. Thought to play a role in higher cognitive functions such as essential information processing, emotional control, and control of cognitive functions. Also believed to be associated with special human cognitive functions such as generation of language, visuospatial attention, and assimilation of audiovisual information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area STV (superior temporal visual area) is on the inferior posterior, and straddles across the posterior part of the Superior temporal sulcus to have its posterior aspect on the anterior angular gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area STV borders PSL superiorly, and TPOJJ1 inferiorly. Its posterior boundaries are made up of PGi and a smaller portion of PFm. Its primary anterior border is with A4.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area STV demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a, and 3b in the sensory strip, area 4 in the motor strip, areas FEF and 55b in the premotor areas, areas 43, PFcm, and OP4 in the superior opercular region, areas PSL, A4, A5 Pbelt, LBelt, PoI1, PI, RI, and 52 in the inferior insula opercular region, areas STSda and STSdp in the temporal lobe, areas PCV in the parietal lobe, areas V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, area V6 in the dorsal visual stream, area FFC in the ventral visual stream, and areas TPOJ3 and TPOJ2 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area STV is structurally connected to the temporal portion of the arcuate/SLF. Fibers from the STV course through the temporal lobe to end at middle temporal gyrus parcellations TE1a, STSdp, STSda, STSva and STSvp. Local short association fibers connect with PSL, STV, PGi, PFm and PFcm.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area STV is a newly described area of the brain parcellated from the temporo-parieto-occipital junction (TPOJ). This area of the brain is thought to play a role in higher cognitive functions such as essential information processing, emotional control, and control of cognitive functions. The TPOJ is also believed to be associated with special human cognitive functions such as generation of language, visuospatial attention and assimilation of audiovisual information. Area PSL was differentiated from area STV based on differences in fMRI activity during arithmetic and auditory story tasks.

 

STV_a

A: lateral-medial

 

STV_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

STV_c

C: superior-inferior

 

STV_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TA2 (temporal regions A, area 2): part of temporal hypotenuse regions. Believed to be a transition zone between non-primary and primary auditory areas of the auditory cortex. There is evidence suggesting that this area is activated when perceiving auditory stimuli, as each hemisphere recognizes different complex acoustic stimulation with the left auditory cortex processing quickly changing sounds of speech and the right activating more with the tone of speech.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TA2 (Temporal region A, area 2) is a region of the medial planum polare anterior to the anterolateral extent of Heschl's gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TA2 borders area PI medially, STGa and area A5 laterally and temporal area TGd anteriorly. Its posterior border is with the anterior edges of A4 and Mbelt.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TA2 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a, and 3b in the sensory strip, area 4 in the motor strip, areas OP4, 43, PFcm, A4, A5, MBelt, PBelt, LBelt, RI, and PI in the insula opercular regions, areas V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, and area V6 of the dorsal visual stream

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TA2 is structurally connected to the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and local parcellations. Inferior longitudinal fasciculus fibers project posterior from TA2 coursing through the temporal lobe to end at occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2, V3 and V6A. Local short association fibers connect with 52, MBelt, A5, PI and STGa

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area TA2 is believed to be a transition zone between non-primary and primary auditory areas of the auditory cortex. There is evidence suggesting that this area is activated when perceiving auditory stimuli, as each hemisphere recognizes different complex acoustic stimulation with the left auditory cortex processing quickly changing sounds of speech and the right activating more with the tone of speech. This area of the brain shares features with cortical sensory areas, but contains fewer granular cells than the primary auditory cortex.

 

TA2_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TA2_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TA2_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TA2_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TE1a (temporal area 1 anterior): part of the temporal lobe regions. Appears to break the functional pattern found in the literature as it is more active in semantic pathways than visual pathways. TE1a is deactivated rather than activated during tasks requiring recognition of relationships between visual objects, visual working memory tasks, and motor activity tasks. In contrast, relative to TE1m, TE1a shows greater activation in language processing tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TE1a (TE 1 anterior) is found on the anterior 1/3 of the lateral face of the middle temporal gyrus up to the edge of the inferior temporal sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TE1a borders STSva superiorly, TGd anteriorly, TE2a inferiorly, and TE1m posteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TE1a demonstrates functional connectivity to 8AV, 8AD, 8BL, 9a, 9p, 9m, a24, 45, 47s, 47L, 10d, 10v, 10r, and SFL in the frontal lobe, areas STSva, STSvp, STSda, TGv, EC, the hippocampus, and TE1m in the temporal lobe, and areas PGs, PGi, 7m, d23ab, 31pv, and 31pd in the parietal lobe

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TE1a is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF, "u" fibers of the occipito-temporal system and the ILF. Arcuate/SLF tracts wrap around the Sylvian fissure projecting toward the frontal lobe to turn medially and terminate at 44, FOP4 and FOP3. There are posterior projections from the arcuate/SLF as it wraps around the Sylvian fissure to terminate at the inferior parietal lobule at PFm, PF, PSL and STV. The ILF courses through the inferior temporal lobe to terminate at V1 and V2. Local short association fibers include "u" fibers of the occipito-temrporal system that connect to STSva, STSvp and TE1m White matter tracts of TE1a in the right hemisphere have more consistent connections with the MdLF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The inferior temporal area (TE) is thought to be the final stage of the ventral visual processing pathway, and therefore is likely responsible for processing and representing information about complex visual objects. TE is also important for short term maintenance of visual object information as part of working memory. Both TE1 and TE2 are thought to be primarily unimodal visual areas and not heavily involved with processing of audio or somatosensory inputs. TE1a appears to break this functional pattern found in the literature because it is more active in semantic pathways than visual pathways. TE1a is deactivated rather than activated during tasks requiring recognition of relationships between visual objects, visual working memory tasks, and motor activity tasks. In contrast, relative to TE1m, TE1a shows greater activation in language processing tasks.

 

1_a

A: lateral-medial

 

1_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

1_c

C: superior-inferior

 

1_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TGd (temporal area g dorsal): part of the temporal lobe regions. Areas TGd and TGv make up the temporal polar cortex, a paralimbic region important for social and emotional processing, auditory and visual aspects of facial recognition, emotional processing of auditory, olfactory and visual stimuli, and theory of mind. TGd, like TGv, is activated in the language-related task contrasts suggesting a role in ventral stream language processing along with its neighbors STGa, STSda, STSva, and TE1a. Compared to TGv inferiorly, TGd is deactivated vs activated in motor tasks in response to a visual cue and relational primary contrasts (ie, distinguishing objects based on feature dimensions).

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TGd (TG dorsal) is found on the superior part of the temporopolar region. It is roughly anterior to the STG and MTG and wraps over the superior surface of the temporal planum polare just anterior to the limen insula.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TGd borders STGa, STSda, and TE1a posteriorly, TE2a and TGv inferiorly, Pir and PI on its anteromedial edge, and PeEC on its posterior mesial border.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TGd demonstrates functional connectivity to 8AV, 8BL, 9a, 9p, 9m, 44, 45, 47s, 47L, 10v, 10r, and SFL in the frontal lobe, areas STSva, STSvp, STSda, STSdp, TGv, STGa, PeEc, the hippocampus, and TE1a in the temporal lobe, and areas PGs, PGi, 7m, d23ab, 31pv, and 31pd in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TGd is structurally connected to the uncinate fasciculus and ILF. Many individuals also have connections through the extreme/external capsule toward the parieto-occipital sulcus and occipital lobe. The uncinate fasciculus wraps medially around the fibers travelling toward the occipital lobe, these fibers course through the extreme/external capsule through the posterior temporal lobe to terminate at DVT, V1, V3, V2, V6 and 7PL. The uncinate fasciculus projects to the frontal lobe through the insula to terminate at FOP4, FOP5, 44 and 45. ILF fibers course through the inferior temporal lobe to terminate at V1 and V2.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas TGd and TGv make up the temporal polar cortex, a paralimbic region important for social and emotional processing, auditory and visual aspects of facial recognition, emotional processing of auditory, olfactory and visual stimuli, and theory of mind. TGd, like TGv, is activated in the language-related task contrasts suggesting a role in ventral stream language processing along with its neighbors STGa, STSda, STSva, and TE1a. Compared to TGv inferiorly, TGd is deactivated vs activated in motor tasks in response to visual cue and relational primary contrasts (i.e. distinguishing objects based on feature dimensions).

 

TGd_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TGd_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TGd_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TGd_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TGv (temporal area g ventral): part of the temporal lobe regions. Areas TGv and TGd make up the temporal polar cortex described in the previous section. Area TGv, like TGd, is activated in language-related task contrasts suggesting a role in ventral stream language processing. Compared to TGd superiorly, TGv is activated vs deactivated in motor tasks in response to a visual cue and relational primary contrasts (ie, distinguishing objects based on feature dimensions).

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TGv (TG ventral) is found on the inferior temporal polar region just anterior to the ITG and fusiform gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TGv borders TE2a posteriorly on its lateral surface, TF posteriorly on its basal surface, and TGd superiorly. PeEc makes up its medial basal surface.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TGv demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 45 and TGd.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TGv is structurally connected to the ILF. ILF projections travel through the inferior temporal lobe to terminate at V1, V2, V3 and V4

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Areas TGv and TGd make up the temporal polar cortex described in the previous section. Area TGv, like TGd, is activated in language-related task contrasts contrasts suggesting a role in ventral stream language processing. Compared to TGd superiorly, TGv is activated vs deactivated in motor tasks in response to a visual cue and relational primary contrasts (i.e. distinguishing objects based on feature dimensions)

 

TGv_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TGv_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TGv_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TGv_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TPOJ1 (temporo-parieto-occipital junction 1): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Participates in several processes including detecting incongruities between expected and presented stimuli, reward processing, and saliency. Also shows prominence in theory of mind, and the processing and detection of incongruous concepts and their subsequent resolution. Has specifically been shown to be activated during self-related processing, and receives input from different sensory afferent neurons.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TPOJ1 (temporal-parietal-occipital junction 1) is found in the posterior superior temporal sulcus, just as it angles upward to indent the angular gyrus. It makes up both banks and the depth of this portion of the sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TPOJ1 borders STV superiorly, and PHT inferiorly. Its anterior border is small but borders STSdp, STSvp, A4, and A5. It borders PGi posterosuperiorly and TPOJ2 posteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TPOJ1 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1,2, 3a, and 3b in the sensory strip, area 4 in the motor strip, areas 55b and FEF in the premotor areas, areas IFJa and IFSp in the lateral frontal lobe, areas OP4, PFcm, RI, STV, PSL, A4, A5, PBelt, and LBelt in the insula opercular region, area STSdp in the temporal lobe, areas V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, area FFC in the ventral visual stream, and areas TPOJ2 and TPOJ3 in the lateral occipital lobe .

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TPOJ1 is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and inferior parietal lobe. Arcuate/SLF connections wrap around the sylvian fissure toward the fronal lobe to end at premotor parcellations IFJa, IFJp and 6r. From the arcuate/SLF there are also connections to the inferior parietal lobule that end at PFm, PGi and PGs. Local short association fibers connect with TPOJ2, STSvp and STSdp.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

The temporal-parietal-occipital junction participates in several processes including detecting incongruities between expected and presented stimuli, reward processing, and saliency. This region also shows prominence in theory of mind, and the processing and detection of incongruous concepts and their subsequent resolution. The TPOJ region has specifically been shown to be activated during self-related processing, and receives input from different sensory afferent neurons. The temporal-parietal-occipital junction is not finely parcellated in the current literature, thus task-based fMRI differences are the only way to delineate their individual functions.

 

TPOJ1_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TPOJ1_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TPOJ1_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TPOJ1_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area TPOJ2 (temporo-parieto-occipital junction 2): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Shows greater activity when individuals are viewing an image of a body compared to an average image of places, tools, and faces. Is deactivated when viewing place images and when listening to a story vs unrelated words.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area TPOJ2 (temporal-parietal-occipital junction 2) is found on the anterior, superior part of the lateral occipital cortex. It straddles the sulcus and is on the posteroinferior bank of the angular gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area TPOJ2 borders PGi superiorly, TPOJ1 anteriorly, PHT, FST and MST inferiorly, and TPOJ3 posteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area TPOJ2 demonstrates functional connectivity to area 2 in the sensory strip, areas 6a, 6v, SCEF, and FEF in the premotor areas, areas 5mv, 23c and p24prime in the cingulate regions, areas OP4, 43, PFcm, 52, RI, STV, A4, PoI1, PoI2, PBelt in the insula opercular region, areas PHT and TE2p in the temporal lobe, areas PFop, PGp, IPS1, IP0, AIP, LIPv, 7AL, 7PL, and 7PC in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7AM, PCV, and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, areas V2 and V3 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a, V6, and V6a in the dorsal visual stream, area FFC in the ventral visual stream, and areas FST, PH, LO3, MST, TPOJ1 and TPOJ3 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area TPOJ2 is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF and inferior parietal lobule. Arcuate/SLF connections wrap around the sylvian fissure toward the fronal lobe to end at premotor parcellations IFJa, IFJp, 6v and 6r. From the arcuate/SLF there are also connections to the inferior parietal lobule that end at PFm, PGi and PGs. Local short association fibers connect with TPOJ1.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Relative to its anterior neighbor TPOJ1, area TPOJ2 shows greater activity when individuals are viewing an image of a body compared to an average image of places, tools, and faces. TPOJ2 is deactivated when viewing place images and when listening to a story versus unrelated words.

 

TPOJ2_a

A: lateral-medial

 

TPOJ2_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

TPOJ2_c

C: superior-inferior

 

TPOJ2_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area v23ab (ventral 23 section a-b): part of the posterior cingulate cortex. Active during self-relevant tasks, including retrieval of semantic and episodic memories. Involved in working memory processing of body and face images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects; and focusing on socially interacting objects over randomly moving geometric shapes.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area v23ab (ventral 23 section a-b) is found on posterior most portion of the posterior cingulate area near the superior portion of the cingulate isthmus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area v23ab borders areas d23ab and 31pv anteriorly, and POS1 posteriorly. Area 7M is its superior neighbor, and RSC it its anterior-inferior border.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area v23ab demonstrates functional connectivity to a47r, p10p, s6-8, 10d, 8AD, 8AV, 8BL, and 9p in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 8BM, 9m, 10r, 10v, a24, s32, and d32 in the medial frontal lobe, area STSva, TGd, TE1a, TE1m, PreS and the hippocampus in the temporal lobe, areas IP1, PGi, and PGs in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas d23ab, POS1, RSC, 7m, 31a, 31pv, and 31pd in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area v23ab is structurally connected to the cingulum. The cingulum fibers project anteriorly from v23ab with connections to the anterior cingulate cortex and cingulate sulcus as the fibers curve around the genu of the corpus callosum, these fibers end at a24, p24 and 32pr. The cingulum fibers continue wrapping around the genu with its connections splitting to project to the anterior pole of the frontal lobe at p32 and 10r, as well as following the rostrum of the corpus callosum to end at 25. Short association bundles are connected to POS1 and 7m.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area v23ab is considered a part of the ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC), which is active during self-relevant tasks, including retrieval of semantic and episodic memories. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of body and face images; listening to stories over answering arithmetic questions; recognizing emotional faces over neutral objects; and focusing on socially interacting objects over randomly moving geometric shapes.

 

v23ab_a

A: lateral-medial

 

v23ab_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

v23ab_c

C: superior-inferior

 

v23ab_dti

DTI image

The information provided in this guide has been adapted from 'A Connectomic Atlas of the Human Cerebrum' (Briggs et al, 2018).
 
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