Parcellation Guide

Functional areas of the Salience Network

 

The salience network is integral for sensorimotor processing, general cognition, and coordinating physical action during painful or emotional states.

The main functional areas, or nodes, of the salience network are located in the anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and presupplementary motor areas. The salience network also includes nodes in the amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral striatum, thalamus, and specific brainstem nuclei.

SALIENCE_SAG

ᐅ  Summary

Area 23c (23, part c): part of the posterior cingulate cortex. Highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial and body orientation. Involved in working memory processing of place and body images as well as focusing on socially interacting objects over randomly moving geometric shapes.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 23c (23, part c) is a long, thin area which lies on the inferior bank of the posterior cingulate sulcus, and which makes up the posterior bank of the marginal ramus of this sulcus as it ascends.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 23c borders PCV on its posterior end, and areas 24dv and p24prime at its anterior end. Its long superior border is with area 5mv posteriorly, and area 24dd anterosuperiorly. Its long inferior border is with area 31a posteriorly, and area 23d anteroinferiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 23c demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6r, 6a, 6ma, in the premotor regions, areas 24dv, a24prime, p24prime, a32prime, p32prime, and 5mv in the middle and posterior cingulate regions, areas IFSa, 9-46d and 46 in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 43, OP4, PFcm, FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas 52, PoI1, PoI2, and MI in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHA3 in the temporal lobe, areas AIP, MIP, LIPv, LIPd, IP0, PGp, PFop, PF, PFt, 7AL, and 7PC, in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 31a, POS2, RSC, 7am, 7pm, PCV and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3b, V7, V6 and V6a in the dorsal visual stream areas, and areas PHT, PH, TPOJ2, TPOJ3, FST,and LO3 of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 23c is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and local parecllations. 23c also has short projections with the cingulum but these fibers end before reaching the anterior cingulate cortex. There are consistent connections through the body of the corpus callosum to contralateral 5mv, 5m, 23c and 5L. Short association bundles project superiorly to end at 24dd, 24dv, 5L, 5m and 5mv.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 23c is considered a part of the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC), which is highly active during tasks that require an external focus, especially concerning visuospatial and body orientation. Task fMRI studies indicate that this region is specifically involved in working memory processing of place and body images as well as focusing on socially interacting objects over randomly moving geometric shapes.

 

23c_a

A: lateral-medial

 

23c_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

23c_c

C: superior-inferior

 

23c_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 46: part of the lateral frontal lobe. Plays a role in goal-directed higher-order cognitive processes. The mid dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 46 parallels area 9-46d along its slightly oblique course. It begins in the depths of the SFS posteriorly and its anterior extent spills onto the MFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 46 borders all three 9-46 hybrid regions, as well as several others, giving it a central place in the ventral prefrontal cortex. Its medial border is mainly area 9-46d and its lateral border is mainly area p9-46v, both of which roughly parallel it along its oblique course. It has an anterolateral border with IFSa, as IFSa rises onto the lateral bank of MFG to meet it. Its anterior limit is mainly with area a9-46v. Its posterior limit forms a wedge with areas 8AV and 8AD.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 46 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas a9-46v, p9-46v, and IFSa in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas SCEF, a32prime, p24prime, and a24prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 6ma, 6a, and 6r in the premotor regions, area 11L in the orbitofrontal region areas FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, FOP5, 52 PFop, PFcm, 43 PoI2, PoI1, and MI in the insula-opercular region, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PF, PFt, PGp, AIP, MIP 7AL, 7PL, and LIPd IP2 and IP0 in the parietal lobe, and areas 23c, PCV, POS2, PCV, 7am, 7pm, 23c, and DVT in the medial parietal lobe. It is also connected to much of the occipital lobe, showing connectivity to V1, V2, V3, V4, V3a, and V6.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 46 is structurally connected to local parcellations and the contralateral hemisphere. Contralateral connections travel through the corpus callosum to end at 9-46d and p9-47v. There are abundant local short association bundles connecting with 9-46d, a9-46v, p9-46v, IFSp and IFSa.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 46 plays a role in goal-directed higher-order cognitive processes. The mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

 

46_a

A: lateral-medial

 

46_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

46_c

C: superior-inferior

 

46_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 5mv (5 medial-ventral): part of paracentral lobule areas. Activation of area 5mv leads to somatosensation and motor response. Additionally, some have found a positive correlation between activation of area 5mv and increased accuracy when a subject is imitating an upper body movement following observation of the task.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 5mv (5 medial-ventral) is located on the posterior inferior paracentral lobule, and makes up the anterior bank of the ascending ramus of the cingulate sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 5mv borders areas 5m and 5l superiorly and area 23c inferiorly across the cingulate sulcus ascending ramus. Its anterior border is with area 24dd. Area 7am and PCV make up its posterior border.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 5mv demonstrates functional connectivity to area 2 in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, FEF, 6r, 6a, 6mp, 6ma, in the premotor regions, areas 24dd, 24dv a24prime, p24prime, p32prime, 23c, and 5L in the middle and posterior cingulate regions, areas 9-46d and 46 in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas 43, OP4, PFcm, FOP1, FOP3, and FOP4 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas 52, PoI1, PoI2, and MI in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, areas AIP, MIP, LIPv, LIPd, IP0, PGp, PFop, PF, PFt, 7AL, and 7PC, in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7am, PCV and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2 and V3 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V6 and V6a in the dorsal visual stream areas, and areas PHT, PH, TPOJ2, TPOJ3, FST,and LO3 of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 5mv is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and cingulate cortex. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to parcellations 5mv, 4, 5l and 5m. Fibers to the cingulate cortex project anteriorly from 5mv to end at 24sv, p24r. No local short association fibers can be visualized.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Activation of area 5mv leads to somatosensation and motor response. Additionally, some have found a positive correlation between activation of area 5mv and increased accuracy when a subject is imitating an upper body movement following observation of the task.

 

5mv_a

A: lateral-medial

 

5mv_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

5mv_c

C: superior-inferior

 

5mv_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 55b: part of the premotor areas. Relatively uncharacterized regions. In 1956, one of the only studies to characterize this regions concluded that the area played a role in language processing.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 55b is located on the anterior half of the precental gyrus, approximately half way down its length along the convexity, just inferior to FEF. It also forms the adjacent floor of the precentral sulci and straddles slightly onto the posterior edge of the middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 55b borders area FEF superiorly and PEF and area 6v inferiorly. Area 4 is its posterior border and areas 8AV and 8C form its anterior border across the precentral sulcus.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 55b demonstrates functional connectivity to area 4 in the motor strip, areas SCEF and SFL in the premotor areas, areas IFSp, IFJa, 8AV, 44, 45, and 47L in the lateral frontal lobe, areas STSda and STSdp in the temporal lobe, areas PSL and STV in the posterior opercular cortices, and area TPOJ1 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 55b is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to 6ma, 6a and 6mp. Connections with the superior longitudinal fasciculus connect 55b to parcellations PHT and PFm, and this tract terminates eventually in the temporal lobe at TGd. Local short association fibers connect with 8Av, 8C, IFJp, 3a, 3b and PEF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 55b is a relatively uncharacterized region. In 1956, one of the only studies to characterize this region concluded that the area played a role in language processing.

 

55b_a

A: lateral-medial

 

55b_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

55b_c

C: superior-inferior

 

55b_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 6ma (6 medial anterior): part of the supplementary motor regions areas. shows more activation compared to areas 6mp, SFL, or s6-8 when individuals are given a visual instruction cue. Area 6ma also showed greater deactivation compared to area SFL when individuals are told a story. Area 6ma also showed less functional activity compared to area s6-8 when individuals had to match objects based on given verbal categories.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 6ma (6 medial anterior) makes up the lateral posterior portion of the superior frontal gyrus. It mainly straddles the interhemispheric angle

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 6ma borders area 6mp posteriorly, SCEF and SFL inferiorly/medially and area 6a laterally. Its anterior neighbor is s6-8.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 6ma demonstrates functional connectivity to, areas SCEF, PEF, FEF, 6r, 6a, 6v, and 6mp in the premotor regions, areas a24prime, p24 prime, p24prime, a32prime, p32prime, 23c, and 5mv in the middle and posterior cingulate regions, areas IFSa, 9-46d a9-46v, p9-46v, and 46 in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas PoI1, PoI2, AVI, MI, 43, PFcm, FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the insula opercular regions, areas IP2, IP0, AIP, MIP, LIPd, PGp, PFop, PF, PFt, 7AL, 7PL, and 7PC, in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas 7am, 7pm, PCV and DVT in the medial parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 6ma is structurally connected to the pyramidal tracts, the frontal aslant tract (FAT) and contralateral hemisphere. Connections to pyramidal tracts descend through the posterior limb of the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle to the brainstem. The FAT connects 6ma with the inferior frontal gyrus terminating at parcellations 44, FOP4 and AAIC. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to 6ma. Local short association fibers connect 6mp, SFL, 6a, i6-8 and s6-8.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 6ma was subdivided from adjacent parcellations due to differences in myelin thickness and functional activity. Specifically, 6ma shows more activation compared to areas 6mp, SFL, or s6-8 when individuals are given a visual instruction cue. Area 6ma also showed greater deactivation compared to area SFL when individuals are told a story. Area 6ma also showed less functional activity compared to area s6-8 when individuals had to match objects based on given verbal categories.

 

6ma_a

A: lateral-medial

 

6ma_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

6ma_c

C: superior-inferior

 

6ma_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 6r (6 rostral): part of the premotor areas. Has not been extensively studied. The literature indicates that this area is functionally related to Broca's area in humans, which is a well-known cortical area essential to language processing.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 6r (6 rostral) is the inferior portion of the precentral sulcus, including its floor and both banks. The latter point implies that some of area 6r lies on both the anterior inferior portion of the precentral gyrus and the posterior portion of the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. The inferior extent of the precentral sulcus forms a shovel shaped cup near the opercular edge and this cup is area 6r.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 6r borders area 44 anteriorly and area 43 posteriorly. Area 6v forms a posterosuperior border with it. PEF is its main superior neighbor, while IFJp and IFJa form an anterior superior border. FOP1 and FOP4 form its inferior border on its undersurface opercular surface.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 6r demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SCEF, FEF PEF, 6ma, 6a and 6v in the premotor regions, areas 23c, 5mv, a24prime, p24prime,and p32prime in the middle cingulate regions, areas 46, p9-46v, 9-46d, IFSa, IFJa, IFJp, and p47r in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 43, OP4, PFcm, FOP2 FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas AVI, MI, PoI1, and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, areas TE2p and PHT in the temporal lobe, areas AIP, MIP, LIPd, LIPv, PFop, PF, PFt, IP0, 7PL, 7AL, and 7PC, in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas PH, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 6r is structurally connected to the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontal aslant tract. FAT connects 6r with the superior frontal gyrus at parcellation SFL. Connections with the superior longitudinal fasciculus connect 6r to posterior temporal parcellations TE1a and TE2a. Local short association fibers connect with 6v, 44, IFJa, IFJp, 8C and IFSa.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 6r has not been extensively studied. The literature indicates that this area is functionally related to Broca's area in humans, which is a well-known cortical area essential to language processing.

 

6r_a

A: lateral-medial

 

6r_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

6r_c

C: superior-inferior

 

6r_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 7AL (7 anterior-lateral): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Involved in several types of information processing including space, vision shape and motion, working memory, and execution. The anterior portion of 7AL is involved in self-centered mental imagery and attentional processes. Area 7AL also demonstrates functional connectivity to the premotor cortex. Relative to its medial neighbor 7AM, area 7AL shows greater activity when processing an average compilation of motor functions and is more deactivated when viewing socially interacting geometric objects.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 7AL (7 anterior-lateral) is found on the anterior superior portion of the superior parietal lobule. It extends to the interhemispheric midline medially and the postcentral sulcus anteriorly.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 7AL borders area 2 anteriorly area 7PC inferiorly, and VIP posteriorly. Areas 5L and 7AM form its medial boundary as these areas extend onto the interhemispheric medial surface.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 7AL demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a, and 3b in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, FEF, 6ma, 6a, 6d, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas 46 and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 24dv, a24prime, p24prime, p32prime, 5L, 5mv, and 23c in the medial frontal lobe, areas 43, PFcm, FOP1 FOP2, FOP3, FOP4, FOP5, 52, MI, PoI1, PoI2, OP4, and OP1 in the insula opercular regions, areas PHT and TE2p, in the temporal lobe, areas 7PC, 7PL, AIP, VIP, MIP, PFop, PF, PFt, and PGp in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7AM, PCV, and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, area V6 visual stream areas, and areas TPOJ2 and FST in the lateral occipital lobe (Figure 45).

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 7AL is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere, IFOF, thalamus and local parcellations. Connections with the IFOF course through the posterior temporal lobe and extreme/external capsule to the frontal lobe to parcellations 9a, 9p, 6a and 6ma. Thalamic connections project inferior through the posterior thalamus and to the brainstem and superior colliculus. Contralateral connections end at 7AL and 7AM after coursing through the corpus callosum. The majority of local association bundles project posterior to 7PL, IP0, IP1, IPS1, LIPd, MIP; bundles are also connected with 2 and 5L. White matter connections from 7AL in the right hemisphere do not have as consistent connections with the superior frontal gyrus via the IFOF, when IFOF connections are present the tract terminates at the lateral frontal lobe.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 7AL is involved in several types of information processing including space, vision shape and motion, working memory, and execution. The anterior portion of 7AL is involved in self-centered mental imagery and attentional processes. Area 7AL also demonstrates functional connectivity to the premotor cortex. Relative to its medial neighbor 7AM, area 7AL shows greater activity when processing an average compilation of motor functions and is more deactivated when viewing socially interacting geometric objects.

 

7AL_a

A: lateral-medial

 

7AL_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

7AL_c

C: superior-inferior

 

7AL_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area 9-46d (9-46 dorsal): part of the lateral frontal lobe regions. Like area 46, plays a role in goal-directed higher- order cognitive processes. The mid-DLPFC, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area 9-46d (9-46 dorsal) occupies a location difficult to describe. It runs across the superior frontal sulcus (SFS) at a slightly oblique, anterior-to-posterior angle. The approximate centroid of the area lies in the depths of the anterior SFS. A significant portion of the anterior- to-posterior length of this region lies on the lateral bank of the superior frontal gyrus, however anteriorly a lateral wedge rises out of the sulcus onto the middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area 9-46d has a number of areas on its medial border. From anterior to posterior these include area p10p, area 9a, area 9p, and a small posterior interface with area 8AD. Its lateral border is a slight wedge between area a9-46v and area 46. Its anterior most point forms a wedge between area p10p and area a9-46v.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area 9-46d demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 46, a9-46v, p9-46v, and FEF in the dorsolateral frontal lobe, areas SCEF, a32prime, p32prime, p24, and a24prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 6a, 6r and PEF in the premotor regions, areas FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, FOP5, PSL, PFop, PFcm, AVI, 43 PoI1, and MI in the insula-opercular region, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PF, 7AL, 7PL, and LIPd in the parietal lobe, and areas POS2, PCV, 7am, 7pm, 23c, and DVT in the medial parietal lobe. It is also connected to much of the occipital lobe, showing connectivity to V1, V2, V3, V4, and V6.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area 9-46d is structurally connected to local parcellations and the contralateral hemisphere. Some individuals have connections with the IFOF, though this is inconsistent. Contralateral connections travel through the corpus callosum to end at 9m and 9p. There are abundant local short association bundles that connect with 8BL, 9p, 9-47d, 46, a9-46v, 8Ad, p47r and a10p.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area 9-46d, like area 46, plays a role in goal-directed higher-order cognitive processes. The mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which includes areas 9-46 and 46, is also involved in the conscious, active control of planned behavior.

 

9-46d_a

A: lateral-medial

 

9-46d_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

9-46d_c

C: superior-inferior

 

9-46d_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area a24pr (anterior 24prime): part of anterior cingulate regions. Shows little response to affective processes, but is implicated in cognitive response selection, and has been implicated in word and sentence selection during language-based tasks.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area a24pr (anterior 24prime) is located in the middle cingulate gyrus. It is primarily located in the superior half of the gyrus, and straddles into the inferior bank of the cingulate sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area a24pr borders area 33prime inferiorly, p24pr posteriorly, p24 anteriorly and it shares its portion of the cingulate with p32pr superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area a24pr is connected to areas 33prime, 5mv, 23d, 24dv, p24, p24prime, and a32prime, and p32prime in the cingulate areas, areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6a and 6r in the premotor areas, area 9-46d, 46 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, FOP5, OP4, PFcm, MI, 43, 52, PoI2, and PoI1 in the insula opercular areas, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PGp, PF, PFop, and 7AL in the lateral parietal lobe, areas DVT, 7am, and PCV in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, and areas V6, V6a, V3a, V3b, and V7 in the dorsal visual stream areas.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area a24pr is structurally connected to the cingulum. Some individuals have contralateral connections through the body of the corpus callosum but this tract is inconsistent. Fibers project anteriorly above the corpus callosum to end at p32, anterior cingulum fibers also curve around the rostrum of the corpus callosum to end at 25.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

he precuneus to end at areas POS1 and 31pv, posterior fibers also curve around the splenium of the corpus callosum to end at RSC.

 

a24pr_a

A: lateral-medial

 

a24pr_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

a24pr_c

C: superior-inferior

 

a24pr_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area FEF: part of the premotor areas. Known to be involved in rapid eye movements between fixed points, also known as intentional saccadic movements. Area FEF has also been implicated in smooth eye movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving target, also known as smooth pursuit eye movements. Together, these movements help the FEF to create a salience map for visual attention.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area FEF is located on the anterior half of the precental gyrus, approximately half way down its length along the convexity, just inferior to the junction point of the precental and superior frontal sulci. It also forms the adjacent floor of the precentral sulci and straddles slightly onto the posterior edge of the middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area FEF borders areas 6a and 6d superiorly and area 55b inferiorly. Area 4 is its posterior border and area i6-8 forms its anterior border on the middle frontal gyrus.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area FEF demonstrates functional connectivity to area 2 in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, PEF, 6r, and 6v in the premotor regions, areas a24prime, p32prime, 5mv, and 23c in the middle cingulate regions, areas IFSa, IFJa, 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 43, OP4, PFcm, FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas STV, LBelt, PBelt, A4, MI, 52, RI, PoI1 and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, areas TE2p and PHT in the temporal lobe, areas AIP, MIP, VIP, LIPd, LIPv, PFop, PF, PFt, PGp, IP0, IPS1, 7AL,7PL, and 7PC, in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7am, DVT, and PCV in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, V3 and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a, V3b, V6, V6a, and V7 of the dorsal visual stream, areas V8 PIT, FFC, VVC, VMV1, VMV2, and VMV3 of the ventral visual stream, and areas V3cd, LO1, LO2, LO3, PH, TPOJ1, TPOJ2, TPOJ3, V4t, MST, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area FEF is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to i6-8 and SFL. Connections with the superior longitudinal fasciculus connect FEF to the intraparietal sulcus and the inferior parietal lobe terminating at IP1, IP2 and PGs. Local short association fibers connect with 6d, 55b, i6-8, 8Av, 6a and PEF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area FEF is known to be involved in rapid eye movements between fixed points, also known as intentional saccadic movements. Area FEF has also been implicated in smooth eye movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving target, also known as smooth pursuit eye movements. Together, these movements help the FEF to create a salience map for visual attention.

 

FEF_a

A: lateral-medial

 

FEF_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

FEF_c

C: superior-inferior

 

FEF_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area FOP1 (frontal operculum 1): part of anterior apex regions, located in the posterior operculum. This regions of the cortex demonstrates activity during imagined abstract movement from a third person perspective. It has also been proposed that the posterior operculum is an important area for perception of pain, and may act as a messenger for transmitting somatosensory information to the limbic system.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area FOP1 (frontal operculum 1) is a tiny area on the undersurface of the posterior portions of the pars opercularis of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area FOP1 borders Areas 6r and 43 superiorly. It has a small anterior border with FOP4 and its inferior borders are with FOP2 and FOP3.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area FOP1 demonstrates functional connectivity to area 2 in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, FEF, 6v, 6ma, 6mp, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 5mv, 23c, 24dv, a24prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 43, PFcm, OP4, FOP2, FOP3, and FOP4 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas MI, 52, PoI1, and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas 7AL, PF, and PFop in the lateral parietal lobe, and areas V3a V6 in the dorsal visual stream area.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area FOP1 is structurally connected to portions of the frontal aslant tract and arcuate/SLF. While the majority has connections to these white matter tracts, they are not consistent across all individuals. Frontal aslant fibers project superiorly from FOP1 to the superior frontal gyrus to end at SFL. Connections with the arcuate/SLF course above the insula, wrapping around the termination of sylvian fissure to end at inferior temporal gyrus area TE1a. From the arcuate/SLF there are also connections to the inferior parietal lobule to PF. Local short association bundles connect with FOP2, FOP3, FOP4 and FOP5. Majority of connections from FOP1 in the right hemisphere are local.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area FOP1 is located in the posterior operculum. This region of the cortex demonstrates activity during imagined abstract movement from a third person perspective. It has also been proposed that the posterior operculum is an important area for perception of pain, and may act as a messenger for transmitting somatosensory information to the limbic system.

 

FOP1_a

A: lateral-medial

 

FOP1_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

FOP1_c

C: superior-inferior

 

FOP1_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area FOP2 (frontal operculum 2): part of anterior apex regions. The frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area FOP2 (frontal operculum 2) lies in the superior circular sulcus of the insula. It is a small area which sits just anterior to the junction of the long insular gyri and the circular sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area FOP2 borders FOP1 and FOP3 on its anterior surface and area 43 on its superior surface. Its inferior and posterior surfaces are made up of IG and to a lesser extent PoI2.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area FOP2 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a, and 3b in the sensory strip, area 4 in the motor strip, areas SCEF, 6v, 6d, 6a, 6mp, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas 43, PFcm, IG, OP4, OP1, FOP1, and FOP3 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas PoI1, and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, areas 7AL, 7PC, AIP, PFt, and PFop in the lateral parietal lobe, and area FST in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area FOP2 is structurally connected to local parcellations. Local short association bundles are connected to FOP3, FOP4, FOP1, OP1 and OP2-3.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area FOP2 is a newly described area of the brain that wasparcellated from the frontal operculum. The frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning. Area FOP2 was separated from FOP3 based on functional activity differences during arithmetic and auditory language tasks. FOP2 was also separated from FOP1 based on object interaction tasks.

 

FOP2_a

A: lateral-medial

 

FOP2_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

FOP2_c

C: superior-inferior

 

FOP2_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area FOP3 (frontal operculum 3): part of anterior apex regions. The frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area FOP3 (Frontal operculum 3) is located in the superior circular sulcus of the insula, just anterior to the junction of this sulcus with the superior aspects of the long and short gyri. FOP3 sits just between these two junctions, slightly deviated towards the short gyri.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area FOP3 borders FOP1 and FOP4 superiorly. FOP2 is its posterior boundary and FOP4 is its anterior boundary. Its inferior boundary is with MI.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area FOP3 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SCEF, 6v, 6ma, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 5mv, 23c, 24dv, a24prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 43, PFcm, OP4, FOP1, FOP2, FOP3, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas MI, 52, PoI1, and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas 7AL, PF, and PFop in the lateral parietal lobe, areas V3a V6 in the dorsal visual stream area, area V2 in the medial occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area FOP3 is structurally connected to the frontal aslant tract and local parcellations. Portions of the frontal aslant connect with FOP3, the fibers project superiorly to the superior frontal gyrus to end at parcellations 6ma and SFL. Local short association bundles connect with FOP2, FOP4, FOP5, MI, PoI2 and Ig.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area FOP3 is a newly described area of the brain that was parcellated from the frontal operculum. The frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning. Area FOP3 was separated from FOP4 based functional activity differences during motor cue and arithmetic tasks.

 

FOP3_a

A: lateral-medial

 

FOP3_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

FOP3_c

C: superior-inferior

 

FOP3_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area FOP4 (frontal operculum 4): part of anterior apex regions. The frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area FOP4 (Frontal operculum 4) is located on the inner surface of the pars opercularis of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area FOP4 borders area 44 on its exterior surface as well as a small border with area 6r posterosuperiorly. Its posterior border is made up of FOP1 and FOP3. Its inferior border is with MI and AVI. Its anterior border is with FOP5.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area FOP4 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6v, 6a, 6ma, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas IFSa, 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 5mv, 23c, 24dv, a24prime, p24prime, a32prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 43, PFcm, OP4, FOP3, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas AVI, MI, PI, 52, PoI1, and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas 7AL, 7PL, AIP, LIPv, LIPd, PF, PFt, PGp, and PFop in the lateral parietal lobe, area V6 in the dorsal visual stream area, area 7am and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, and V3 in the medial occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area FOP4 is structurally connected to the frontal aslant tract and the arcuate/SLF. Connections from FOP4 with the frontal aslant tract project superior to the superior frontal gyrus to end at parcellations 6ma and SFL. Arcuate/SLF fibers project posteriorly above the insula, curving around the termination of the sylvain fissure to end at TGd and TE1a. From the arcuate/SLF there are also projections to the superior temporal gyrus that end at A4 and A5. Local short association fibers connect with AVI, FOP3, FOP5 and MI 14. White matter connections from FOP4 in the right hemisphere have less consistent connections with the arcuate/SLF

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area FOP4 is a newly described area of the brain that was parcellated from the frontal operculum. The frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning. Area FOP4 was parcellated from areas AVI and FOP1 based on differences in functional activity in motor-based tasks.

 

FOP4_a

A: lateral-medial

 

FOP4_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

FOP4_c

C: superior-inferior

 

FOP4_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area FOP5 (frontal operculum 5): part of anterior apex regions. Frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning. FOP5 showed greater activity in motor tasks during which individuals squeezed their left and right toes, tapped their left and right fingers, and moved their tongue.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area FOP5 (frontal operculum 5) is located on the undersurface of the opercular portions of pars triangularis of the IFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area FOP5 is principally the underside of area 45, though parts of area 44 and area 47L are on its exterior surface. AVI is inferior to it and FOP4 is posterior to it.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area FOP5 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6ma and 6r in the premotor regions, areas 44, 45, IFSa, IFja, 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 23c, a24prime, p24prime, a32prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas 43, PFcm, FOP3, and FOP4 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas AVI, MI, PoI1, and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas LIPd, PF, and PFop in the lateral parietal lobe, area 7am in the medial parietal lobe, area V1 in the medial occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area FOP5 is structurally connected to the IFOF and arcuate/SLF. The IFOF courses from occipital lobe parcellations V1, V2 V3, and parietal area MIP, through the extreme/external capsule to turn laterally to FOP5. FOP5 has arcuate/SLF fibers projecting posteriorly above the insula and turning laterally to end at the posterior insula and planum temporale parcellations RI and LBelt. Local short association fibers connect with 45, FOP4 and AVI. White matter tracts from FOP5 in the right hemisphere have less consistent connections with the arcuate/SLF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area FOP5 is a newly described area of the brain that was parcellated from the frontal operculum. The frontal operculum plays a key role in the initiation of language and lexical retrieval required for language learning. Area FOP5 was parcellated from FOP4 based on functional activity differences between these two regions. Specifically, FOP5 showed greater activity in motor tasks during which individuals squeezed their left and righ toes, tapped their left and right fingers, and moved their tongue. Area FOP5 was parcellated from area 44 based on functional activity differences in motor cue and semantic tasks.

 

FOP5_a

A: lateral-medial

 

FOP5_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

FOP5_c

C: superior-inferior

 

FOP5_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area MI (middle insula): part of anterior apex regions. Suggested to have a role in sensation and control of autonomic nervous system processes as well as playing a role in human awareness, self-recognition, time perception, and perceptual decision making.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area MI (Middle insula) is located in the posterior superior portion of the short insular gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area MI borders AVI anteriorly, POI2 posteriorly, AAIC inferiorly and FOP3 and FOP4 superiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area MI demonstrates functional connectivity to areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6ma and 6r in the premotor regions, areas IFSa, 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 5mv, 23c, a24prime, p24prime, a32prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas OP4, 43, PFcm, FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas 52, PI, AVI, AAIC, PoI1, and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas LIPd, PF, PFm, PFop, and PFt in the lateral parietal lobe, area 7am in the medial parietal lobe, area V6 in the dorsal visual stream area.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area MI is structurally connected with the arcuate/SLF, frontal aslant tract and local parcellations. Some individuals have connections to the parietal and occipital lobe though these tracts are inconsistent. Connections to the superior frontal gyrus through the FAT project superior to 8BL, 6ma and SFL. Superior temporal gyrus connections are portions of the arcuate/SLF and course from MI, medial and superior to the insula to end laterally at A4 and A5. Local short association bundles connect with PoI1, 47s, Pir, AAIC, AVI, FOP3, FOP4 and FOP5.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area MI is a newly described area of the brain and was parcellated from the anterior insula. The anterior insula is suggested to have a role in sensation and control of autonomic nervous system processes as well as playing a role in human awareness, self-recognition, time perception, and perceptual decision making. Area MI was parcellated from areas AAIC and AVI in the anterior insula based on functional activity differences between regions related to motor, arithmetic, auditory language, and semantic tasks.

 

MI_a

A: lateral-medial

 

MI_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

MI_c

C: superior-inferior

 

MI_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area p24pr (posterior 24 prime): part of anterior cingulate regions. Has been implicated as part of the "cognitive division" of the anterior cingulate cortex and is involved in stimulus and response selection during cognitively demanding tasks that may require movement.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area p24pr (posterior 24 prime) is located in the middle cingulate gyrus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area p24pr borders area 24dv superiorly, a24pr anteriorly, 33prime inferiorly, and 23d posteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area p24pr demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 33prime, 24dd, 24dv, 5mv, 23d, a24prime, and p32prime, in the cingulate areas, areas 6ma and 6r in the premotor areas, area 46 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas FOP4, FOP5, PFcm, MI, 43, and PoI1 in the insula opercular areas, areas PF, PFop, and 7AL in the parietal lobe, and area TPOJ2 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area p24pr is structurally connected to the marginal branch of the cingulate sulcus and precuneus. Fibers from p24pr project posterior to the marginal branch of the cingulate sulcus and precuneus to end at parcellations 23c, 31a, 31pd and 7m.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area p24pr has been implicated as part of the "cognitive division" of the anterior cingulate cortex and is involved in stimulus and response selection during cognitively demanding tasks that may require movement.

 

p24pr_a

A: lateral-medial

 

p24pr_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

p24pr_c

C: superior-inferior

 

p24pr_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area p32pr (posterior 32 prime): part of anterior cingulate regions. Has been implicated as part of the "cognitive division" of the anterior cingulate cortex and is involved in stimulus and response selection in tasks that require attention. for linguistic and sensory information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area p32pr (posterior 32 prime) is located in the posterior inferior portion of the superior frontal gyrus. It wraps into the superior bank of the cingulate sulcus.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area p32pr borders SCEF superiorly, 24dv posteriorly, a24pr inferiorly, and a32pr anteriorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area p32pr demonstrates functional connectivity to area 2 in the sensory strip, areas 5mv, 23d, 24dv, p24, p24prime, and a32prime, and a32prime in the cingulate areas, areas SCEF, PEF, 6a, 6v, 6ma, and 6mp in the premotor areas, area 9-46d, 46 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, FOP5, OP4, PFcm, MI, 43, 52, PoI2, and PoI1 in the insula opercular areas, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PGp, PFt, PF, PFop, LIPd, 7PC, 7PL, and 7AL in the lateral parietal lobe, areas DVT and 7am in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V6, V6a, V3a, V3b, and V7 in the dorsal visual stream areas, and area FST in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area p32pr is structurally connected to the cingulum and contralateral hemisphere. Cingulum fibers project posteriorly to from p32pr to end at precuneus areas 31a, 31pd, 31pv, PCV and v23ab. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to end at p32pr, SCEF and a32pr. Local short association fibers connect with p32pr, SCEF and a32pr.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area p32pr has been implicated as part of the "cognitive division" of the anterior cingulate cortex and is involved in stimulus and response selection in tasks that require attention for linguistic and sensory information.

 

p32pr_a

A: lateral-medial

 

p32pr_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

p32pr_c

C: superior-inferior

 

p32pr_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PFcm (parietal F, regions cm): part of parietal apex regions, and subdivision of the inferior parietal cortex. The inferior parietal cortex is believed to be important in processing language with regard to language vocabulary, semantics, articulation, and working memory.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PFcm (Parietal F, region cm) is located in the superior portion of the supramargina gyrus. It is primarily located on the opercular cleft of this part of the gyrus What are its borders? Area PFcm borders borders parietal regions PF, and PFop superiorly. Its anteroinferior border is OP1. RI is its inferior border. Its posterior border is PSL.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

 

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PFcm demonstrates functional connectivity to Area OP4 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a, 3b in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6mp, 6r, 6a and 6v in the premotor regions, areas 24dv, a24prime, p24prime, p32prime, 24dd, 24dv, 5mv, and 23c in the middle cingulate regions, areas 9-46d and 46 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 43, OP4 OP2-3, OP1, PFcm, FOP1, FOP2, FOP3, FOP4 and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas LBelt, PBelt, MBelt, A1, TA2, PI, A4, TA2, MI, STV, 52, RI, PoI1 and PoI2 in the lower opercula area and Heschl's gyrus regions, PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PF, PFop, PFt, PGp, AIP, 7PC, and 7AL in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7am and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, areas V2 and V3 in the medial occipital lobe, area V3a of the dorsal visual stream, areas FFC of the ventral visual stream, and areas LO3, TPOJ1, TPOJ2, TPOJ3, MST, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PFcm is structurally connected to portions of the arcuate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF connection wrap around the termination of the sylvian fissure with inferior projections through the temporal lobe to end at inferior and middle temporal gyrus parcellations TE1a, STSva and TE2a. Local short association bundles are connected with OP1, OP4, PFop, PBelt, PF and RI. There are less consistent inferior connections from PFcm in the right hemisphere through the temporal lobe.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PFcm is a subdivision of the inferior parietal cortex. The inferior parietal cortex is believed to be important in processing language with regards to language vocabulary, semantics, articulation and working memory. Area PFcm was differentiated from area PSL based on lower levels of activity on fMRI during arithemetic and auditory story tasks. Area PFcm was also differentiated from area RI based on higher levels of activity on fMRI during motor cue tasks.

 

PFcm_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PFcm_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PFcm_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PFcm_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PFop (parietal area F, operculum): part of the lateral parietal lobe regions. Involved in motor planning and action-related functions. For example, it is activated in humans when they observe tools being used. Has also been described as part of a mirror neuron system in which actions or behaviors are learned by observing the actions of others. Has also been implicated in the task- positive network.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PFop (parietal area F, operculum) is found on the anterior inferior parietal lobule where it joins the postcentral gyrus anteroinferiorly.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PFop borders area 1 anteriorly and area PF posteriorly. Its superior border is made of PFt, and area 2, and its inferior border is made of OP4, OP1, and PFcm.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PFop demonstrates functional connectivity to area 2 in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, FEF, PEF, 6ma, 6mp, 6a, 6r, and 6v in the premotor regions, areas a24prime, p24prime, p32prime, 24dv, 5mv, and 23c in the middle cingulate regions, areas IFSa,46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas OP4, OP2-3, OP1, PFcm, FOP1, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas LBelt, PBelt, PI, A4, MI, 52, RI, PoI1 and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area TE2p, PHT in the temporal lobe, areas PFt, PF, PGp, IP0, AIP, MIP, LIPv, LIPd, 7PC, 7PL, and 7AL in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7AM, and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, and V3 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a and V6 of the dorsal visual stream, areas V8 and FFC of the ventral visual stream, and areas LO3, TPOJ2, PH, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PFop is structurally connected to local parcellations. Local short association fibers connect with PF, PFcm, PFt, 4, OP1 and OP4

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

This region is a part of the rostral inferior parietal lobule which is involved in motor planning and action-related functions. For example, it is activated in humans when they observe tools being used. PFop has also been described as part of a mirror neuron system in which actions or behaviors are learned by observing the actions of others. The rostral inferior parietal lobule has also been implicated in the task-positive network.

 

PFop_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PFop_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PFop_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PFop_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PI (parainsular area): part of temporal hypotenuse regions. Plays a role in internal regulatory processes and in the processing of somatosensory, visual, and motor stimuli. There is also evidence that suggests area PI is activated when the body assesses its physi- ological condition when individuals are subject to heat.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PI (parainsular area) is in the anterior inferior circular sulcus of the insula.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PI borders PoI1 medially, and TA2, STGa, and Mbelt laterally. Its posterior border is with area 52, and its anterior border is with Pir and TGd.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PI demonstrates functional connectivity to areas PoI1, PoI2, MBelt, PBelt, 43, PFcm, RI, 52, FOP4, OP4, TA2 and STGa in the insula opercular regions, and PFop in the parietal lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PI is structurally connected to the temporal pole, occipital lobe and local parcellations. This area's structural connectivity is difficult to distinguish due to the proximity of the area to the extreme and external capsule. Occipital connections project through the temporal lobe to end at parcellation V1. Connections to the temporal pole course inferiorly to end at area TGd. Local short asscoation bundles connect with PoI1, PoI2, Ig and OP2-3.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PI plays a role in internal regulatory processes and in the processing of somatosensory, visual and motor stimuli. There is also evidence that suggests area PI is activated when the body assess its physiological condition when individuals are subject to heat.

 

PI_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PI_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PI_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PI_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PoI1 (posterior insula 1): part of temporal hypotenuse regions. Parcellated from the posterior insula. The posterior insula is anatomically and functionally connected with primary and secondary somatosensory and motor cortices, and takes part in processing various sensory inputs.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PoI1 (posterior insula 1) is on the posterior long gyrus of the insula.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PoI1 borders PoI2 anteriorly, and areas 52 and PI inferolaterally. Its superior border is with IG.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PoI1 demonstrates functional connectivity to area 2 in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, FEF, 6a, 6ma, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas IFSa, 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 5mv, 23c, 24dv, a24prime, p24prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas OP4, 43, PFcm, FOP1, FOP2, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas Pir, 52, PI, MI, MBelt, PBelt, A4, STV, and PoI2 in the lowe opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas 7AL, PF, PGp, PFop, and PFt in the lateral parietal lobe, areas DVT and 7am in the medial parietal lobe, areas V2 and V3 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a and V6 in the dorsal visual stream area, and area FST in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PoI1 is structurally connected to the occipital and parietal lobe through the middle longitudinal fasciculus and to local parcellations. Fibers from PoI1 project posterior deep to the supramarginal gyrus ending at parietal and occipital parcellations 7AL, 7PC V3A, V3B, V6 and V6A. The majority of local short association bundles project posteriorly to parcellations PoI1, Ig, MBelt, PBelt, FOP2, OP2-3, OP1 and MI.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PoI1 is a newly described area parcellated from the posterior insula. The posterior insula is anatomically and functionally connected with primary and secondary somatosensory and motor cortices, and takes part in processing various sensory inputs. Area PoI1 was differentiated from area PoI2 based on differences in fMRI activity during motor-based tasks.

 

PoI1_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PoI1_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PoI1_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PoI1_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PoI2 (posterior insula 2): part of temporal hypotenuse regions. Parcellated from the posterior insula. The posterior insula is anatomically and functionally connected with primary and secondary somatosensory and motor cortices and takes part in processing various sensory inputs.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PoI2 (Posterior insula 2) is on the anterior of the two long insular gyri.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PoI2 borders PoI1 posterior and inferiorly. Its superior border is IG, and small portions of FOP2 and FOP3. It shares an anterior border with MI and a small portion of AAIC.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PoI2 demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 2 and 3a in the sensory strip, areas SCEF, FEF, 6a, 6ma, 6v, and 6r in the premotor regions, areas IFSa and 46 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas 5mv, 23c, 24dv, a24prime, p24prime, and p32prime in the medial frontal lobe, areas OP4, 43, IG, PFcm, FOP1, FOP2, FOP3, FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas Pir, 52, PI, MI, PBelt, A4, AAIC, and PoI1 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, areas TE2p and PHT in the temporal lobe, areas 7AL, AIP, LIPd, PF, PGp, PFop, and PFt in the lateral parietal lobe, area7am in the medial parietal lobe, area V2 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V6 in the dorsal visual stream area, and areas TPOJ2, PH, and FST in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PoI2 is structurally connected to the entorhinal cortex, local parcellations and to the parietal lobe through the middle longitudinal fasciculus. Fibers from PoI2 project posterior deep to the supramarginal gyrus ending at parietal parcellations 2, 7PC, 7PL, LIPd, LIPv and VIP. PoI2 has inferior projections to PeEc of the entorhinal cortex and TGd of the temporal pole. The majority of local short association bundles project posteriorly to parcellations PoI1, Ig, MBelt, PBelt, FOP2, OP2-3, OP1 and MI. Fibers from PoI2 in the right hemisphere have less consistent projections to the entorhinal cortex.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PoI2 is a newly described area parcellated from the posterior insula. The posterior insula is anatomically and functionally connected with primary and secondary somatosensory and motor cortices and takes part in processing various sensory inputs. Area PoI2 was differentiated from area AAIC based on differences in fMRI activity during motor-based tasks.

 

PoI2_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PoI2_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PoI2_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PoI2_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area PSL (perisylvian language area): part of parietal apex regions. Thought to play a role in higher cognitive functions such as essential information processing, motional control, and control of cognitive functions. Also believed to be associated with special human cognitive functions such as generation of language, visuospatial attention, and assimilation of audiovisual information.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area PSL (periSylvian Language area) is located in the supramarginal gyrus. It is located at the apex of the posterior Sylvian Fissure, in the lower portion of this posterior part of the SMG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area PSL borders STV inferiorly, PFm posteriorly, PF superiorly, and PFcm anteriorly. It borders RI on its internal surface.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area PSL demonstrates functional connectivity to area SCEF in the paracingulate areas, area 55b in the premotor areas, areas IFJa, 9-46d, 44 and 45 in the lateral frontal lobe, areas STV and A5 in the inferior insula opercular region, areas STSda, STSdp, and STSvp in the temporal lobe, areas V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V6, V67a, V7, V3a, and V3b in the dorsal visual stream, areas V8, FFC, Pit and VVC in the ventral visual stream, and area TPOJ1 in the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area PSL is structurally connected to the arcuate/SLF. Arcuate/SLF fibers project anteriorly from PSL above the insula to end at 6r, and inferiorly from PSL through the temporal lobe to end at TE1a, STSdp, STSva and STSvp. Local short association bundles connect with PBelt, STV, RI, A5 and PF.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area PSL is a newly described area of the brain parcellated from the temporo-parieto-occipital junction (TPOJ). This area of the brain is thought to play a role in higher cognitive functions such as essential information processing, motional control, and control of cognitive functions. The TPOJ is also believed to be associated with special human cognitive functions such as generation of language, visuospatial attention and assimilation of audiovisual information. Area PSL was differentiated from areas PFcm and RI based on differences in fMRI activity during arithmetic and auditory story tasks.

 

PSL_a

A: lateral-medial

 

PSL_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

PSL_c

C: superior-inferior

 

PSL_dti

DTI image

ᐅ  Summary

Area SCEF (supplementary and cingulate eye field): part of medial superior frontal gyrus regions. Higher order oculomotor center implicated in appraising all possible oculomotor behaviors to direct primary oculomotor centers in goal- directed behavior.

ᐅ  Where is it?

Area SCEF (supplementary and cingulate eye field) is located in the posterior medial SFG.

ᐅ  What are its borders?

Area SCEF borders area 8BM anteriorly, areas 6ma and SFL superiorly, areas 6mp and 24dd posteriorly, and areas 24dv and p32pr inferiorly.

ᐅ What are its borders?

Area SCEF demonstrates functional connectivity to areas 1, 2, 3a, 3b in the sensory strip, area 4 in the motor strip, areas PEF, FEF, 55b, 6ma, 6mp, 6a, 6r, and 6v in the premotor regions, areas a24prime, p32prime, a32prime, 5mv, and 23c in the middle cingulate regions, areas IFJa, 46, and 9-46d in the lateral frontal lobe areas OP4, OP1, PFcm, 43, FOP1, FOP2, FOP3 FOP4, and FOP5 in the superior insula opercular regions, areas PSL, 52, A4, MI, PoI1 and PoI2 in the lower opercula and Heschl's gyrus regions, area PHT in the temporal lobe, areas AIP, MIP, VIP, LIPd, LIPv, PFop, PF, PFt, IP0, IPS1, 7AL, 7PL, and 7PC, in the lateral parietal lobe, areas 7am and DVT in the medial parietal lobe, area V1, V2, V3, V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a, V3b, V6, V6a, and V7 in the dorsal visual stream, area FFC of the ventral visual stream, and areas PH, TPOJ2, LO3, MST, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe.

ᐅ What are its functional connections?

Area SCEF is structurally connected to the contralateral hemisphere and thalamus. Contralateral connections course through the body of the corpus callosum to end at SCEF, 8BL, SFL and 8BM. Thalamic projections travel through the ventral thalamus to the brainstem (Figure 32). Local short association bundles connect with SF, 8BM, SFL and 8BL.

ᐅ What are its white matter connections?

Area SCEF is a higher order oculomotor center implicated in appraising all possible oculomotor behaviors to direct primary oculomotor centers in goal-directed behavior.

 

SCEF_a

A: lateral-medial

 

SCEF_b

B: anterior-posterior

 

SCEF_c

C: superior-inferior

 

SCEF_dti

DTI image

The information provided in this guide has been adapted from 'A Connectomic Atlas of the Human Cerebrum' (Briggs et al, 2018).
 
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